1. List: Internment in Australia during WWII
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    To what extend did the restrictions placed upon internees following their release from internment in WWII work to alienate individuals rather than integrate them into society?

    For this research project I have chosen to look into the appeals to internment process, in particular the restrictions placed on individuals after their appeal was successful. The archival collection that I used was Trove newspapers from the period of 1940-45. This question asks what requirements some individuals had to agree to abide by once released from internment and how these strict requirements and the consequences of not abiding by them worked to further segregate these individuals from society.

    Source 5 backs up the information found in the primary sources by adding more in depth explanation of individual cases and how these individuals were actually affected mentally and physically by the segregation. For example the source talks of one German family, the Schuster family who applied for a telephone service but their application was refused and they were only allowed to leave their farm with police permission. Hence, this shows that they were further segregated from society as these requirements restricted contact that they could have with other members in their community.

    Source 4 is extremely useful in helping me to answer this question as it provides some background information into how appeals against internments are assessed, which gives an indication into the purpose of restrictions imposed on individuals when they are released. It states that the tribunals would not recommend the release of someone if they were satisfied that they would be a risk to public safety, the defence of the commonwealth or the sufficient prosecution of the war or cause unrest in the community. Hence, this indicates that although internees would not be released if they posed a threat to society, many were still placed under restrictive conditions anyway, which contradicts the argument that conditions were put into place to protect society, making it seem as though some of the restrictions discussed in this research were just there to alienate these individuals.

    Source 9 is a newspaper article which shows the highly xenophobic attitudes towards foreigners of enemy countries at that time. It is helpful in answering this question as it shows the attitudes of the Healesville Guardian newspaper align with those of the R.S.S.A.I.L.A in that they believe that people from enemy countries should be treated like aliens when they are released from internment as they suggest that if they are seen to be disloyal to the country they should be 'struck off the roll' and those that were sent over from Britain should be sent back after the war. Hence, this advances the argument by showing that some members of society were also willing to exclude ex-internees from Australian society and wanted these conditions put in place to exclude them.

    With regards to these sources, I have come to the conclusion that it is too a large extent that the restrictions placed upon the ex-internees work to segregate rather than too integrate these people into society.This is because many sources describe restrictions such as having to stay at the one address, restrictions to communication with family members who may pose a threat, and restrictions to where someone is allowed to work after their internment. Hence these restrictions limit the opportunities that these people have to interact and make connections with others in society, just like when they were in the camps.

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    created by: Keelyh on 2017-09-05 20:49:44.0
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  1. Web page: Giuseppe Musico - release from internment
    Web page

    2017-09-07 21:09:48.0

    This primary source is an order revoking the detention of Mr Giuseppe and outlines the restrictions on him following his release from internment. It is very useful to my research as it shows that the restrictions placed on Mr Giuseppe included, only being able to obtain employment from the places specified in the document, that he shall not change his address without the permission of the Deputy Director, and that he may not provide his opinion if it will offend loyal citizens. Hence, this shows that he is still being segregated from other people in the community as he was not even allowed to voice his opinion if it would offend others and did not enjoy the liberties of choosing where he wanted to work and live, like others in society.

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  2. Letizia Zavattaro with brother-in-law Vittorio [Vic] Zavattaro, who is in United States Army (Small Ships) uniform, following his release from internment
    [ Photograph : 1944 ]
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    At Italian Hist. Soc.
    Letizia Zavattaro with brother-in-law Vittorio [Vic]  Zavattaro, who is in United States Army (Small Ships) uniform, following his release from internment

    2017-09-08 15:25:46.0

    This source is a photograph which shows a photo of Letizia Zavattaro and her brother-in-law Vittorio Zavattaro. In this photo Vittorio is wearing a US army uniform. He was given the choice of whether he wanted to join the US army or the Australian army after being released from internment. He chose the US in protest against the Australian government keeping him in internment. Although this shows that he was allowed to be included back into society through the army, he was still given an ultimatum and had he not chosen to be in either army he may have been put back into detention. Hence this shows that the consequences of not fulfilling his requirement to be in the US army would be futher segregation from the community again. The only thing that limits this source is that being a photo, we cannot tell how Vittorio was feeling at the time about going into the US army.

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    The Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1933 - 1954) Wednesday 25 June 1947 p 3 Article
    Abstract: ROBERT CLINCE LITTLE, grazier, of Townshend Island, off the Queensland coast, claimed damages in the High Court yesterday against the 1506 words
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    Nambucca and Bellinger News (NSW : 1911 - 1945) Friday 13 December 1940 p 3 Article
    Abstract: Enemy aliens interned in Australia, other than those sent to Australia from the United Kingdom or other Dominions, may apply for 203 words
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  5. Web page: 'Under Suspicion' edited by John Beaumont, Ilma Martinuzzi O’Brien and Mathew Trinca
    Web page

    2017-09-08 00:14:02.0

    Beaumont, Joan. O’Brien, lma Martinuzzi. and Trinca, Mathew (eds.). Under Suspicion: Citizenship and internment in Australia during the Second World War. Canberra : National Museum of Australia Press, 2008.

    This secondary source is a high quality academic source as the authors are all experts in this field. At the time that the source was published, Joan Beaumont was the director of the Faculty of Arts, College of Arts and Social Sciences at ANU and has done a huge amount of research into Australia's experience of the World War's, including studies into prisoners of war. Ilma Martinuzzi was an honorary research associate in the School of Historical and European Studies at La Trobe University and has written other academic works on internment in particular of Italian migrants in Australia in WW2. Mathew Trinca was the general manager of Collections and Content at the National Museum of Australia and is now the director of the national Museum of Australia. The most updated version of this text was written in 2015 making it quite current for this topic. However examples have been used from the 2008 version because this is all I had access too.

    The purpose of the source is to bring together different experiences of internment in WWII in Australia. This is useful to my research as these different experiences also include accounts of the restrictions placed on individuals once they were released from internment. It also shows that there was a vast amount of suspicion in Australia at the time which may point to why some of these restrictions were put into place.

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  6. Release from Internment "RESTRICTIVE CONDITIONS"
    Kalgoorlie Miner (WA : 1895 - 1950) Wednesday 2 September 1942 p 4 Article
    Abstract: Sydney, Aug. 30.— A protest against the "restrictive conditions" governing his release from internment was made today by Mr Martin Watts, who said 208 words
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    2017-09-08 15:36:44.0

    This source talks of a man named Mr Martin Watts and his protest against the restrictive conditions placed upon him after his release from internment. He was told that he could not directly or indirectly communicate with any member of the "Australia First" movement and or write for "The Publicist", even if this person was a family member. This source is extremely beneficial to my research as it shows that the government tried to stop people from communicating to others who were seen to be sympathising enemy nations. Hence, they were segregating those people from perhaps even their family and friends. However, this source is really useful as it shows that this certain individual did not believe "Australia First" posed a threat to the state anyway. Hence, it is unlikely that this man agreed with the conditions imposed on him.

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  7. Web page: Government Gazette
    Web page
  8. Travel Permit - Hilde Muffler, 1943
    Mrs Hilde Muffler (nee Mayer)
    [ Object : 1943 ]
    View online
    At Museum Victoria Coll
    Travel Permit - Hilde Muffler, 1943
  9. The Alien Question. R.S.S.A.I.L.A. STAND.
    Healesville Guardian (Lilydale, Vic. : 1942 - 1954) Saturday 9 June 1945 p 1 Article
    Abstract: The question of the rights of soldiers on their return to civil occupations and how they will fare if alien infiltration is allowed to grow is 725 words
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  10. Why the Mystery Over Release Of Internees?
    The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 - 1947) Wednesday 29 November 1944 p 2 Article
    Abstract: A full statement on the release of alien internees has been promised by the Federal Government, but there must be doubt in the public mind that any s ... 700 words
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