Gender Discrimination in Promotion: The Case of Spanish Labor Market
Rocío Albert López-Ibor
Lorenzo Escot Mangas
José Andrés Fernández Cornejo
Javier Saiz Briones
This paper tests the hypothesis that a glass ceiling phenomenon exists in the Spanish labor market -that as women rise in the professional hierarchy, they face increasing obstacles for promotion. Using data from Encuesta de la Calidad de Vida en el Trabajo (ECVT) for 2001, a number of indicators were selected for promotion: number of promotions, supervision levels, number of people supervised and net wage. The “relative gaps” were calculated for each of the categories for these variables, in order of size, starting with the smallest. These measure the percentage by which women’s participation would have to increase in order to reach the level that would exist if there were no discrimination (the latter being calculated, in line with the Oaxaca decomposition, by evaluating women’s endowments in the model estimated for men, for whom it is assumed there is no gender discrimination). In order to calculate these relative gaps, for each of the indicators one model was estimated for women and one for men. The ordered probit model was used to calculate the probabilities (or theoretic frequencies) for the presence of women/men at each of the intervals considered. The results indicated that, in all cases, the relative gap tends to increase as the intervals rise. This might indicate the presence of a glass ceiling problem.
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