Bimatoprost: A Pharmacoeconomic Review of its Use in Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension
Greg L. Plosker
Susan J. Keam
Bimatoprost (Lumigan(R)) is a prostamide analogue used for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In comparative clinical trials of up to 1 year in duration, administration of 0.03% bimatoprost ophthalmic solution once daily was more effective than 0.5% timolol twice daily and at least as effective as the prostaglandin analogues 0.005% latanoprost and 0.004% travoprost once daily in terms of reducing IOP and/or achieving target IOP levels. Bimatoprost was also more effective than twice-daily administration of 0.5%/2% timolol/dorzolamide in patients refractory to topical timolol therapy. Although generally well tolerated, bimatoprost is associated with a higher incidence of conjunctival hyperaemia than latanoprost, timolol or the combination of timolol and dorzolamide. Three fully published modelled cost-effectiveness analyses of bimatoprost evaluating cost per treatment success in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension have been conducted in the US. The analyses incorporated results of randomised, multicentre clinical trials and used a 1-year time horizon. In the treatment algorithm used in the models, patients not achieving target IOP levels with bimatoprost or comparator required additional medical visits and adjunctive therapy. Bimatoprost was associated with lower costs per treatment success than latanoprost, timolol or timolol/dorzolamide across a range of clinically relevant target IOPs. Results were sensitive to changes in treatment success rates and/or drug acquisition costs. Along with the inherent limitations of economic models, other possible criticisms of the analyses are the use of selected IOP data, and the lack of inclusion of costs associated with conjunctival hyperaemia or other adverse effects of therapy. Various other cost-effectiveness analyses of bimatoprost are available, primarily as abstracts and/or posters. In general, most of these studies have also been favourable for bimatoprost, despite having been conducted in different countries and/or from different perspectives. In conclusion, in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, bimatoprost is an effective and generally well tolerated therapeutic option, albeit with a relatively high incidence of conjunctival hyperaemia. Although results of modelled cost-effectiveness analyses should be interpreted with due consideration of the limitations of the studies, available pharmacoeconomic data generally support the use of bimatoprost as a cost-effective treatment in this patient population.
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