Recombinant Factor VIIa (Eptacog Alfa): A Pharmacoeconomic Review of its Use in Haemophilia in Patients with Inhibitors to Clotting Factors VIII or IX
Katherine A. Lyseng-Williamson
Greg L. Plosker
Recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven(R); also known as recombinant activated factor VII or eptacog alfa) is indicated as an intravenous haemostatic agent in haemophilia patients with inhibitors to clotting factors VIII or IX. In noncomparative trials in haemophilia patients with inhibitors, on-demand home treatment with recombinant factor VIIa was effective in controlling episodes of mild to moderate bleeding and well tolerated, with early treatment being associated with a greater rate of success and the need for fewer doses than delayed treatment. Prophylactic treatment with recombinant factor VIIa was also effective in maintaining haemostasis in patients with this indication undergoing surgery. Relative to prior treatment with plasma-derived agents, treatment with recombinant factor VIIa was associated with improvements in health-related quality of life in a cost-utility study in haemophilia patients with inhibitors in Australia. In well designed decision-model cost analyses conducted from a healthcare payer perspective in several countries, on-demand treatment with recombinant factor VIIa to control mild to moderate bleeding episodes in this patient population was predicted to be cost saving or cost neutral relative to on-demand treatment with intravenous activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC). Although the acquisition cost of recombinant factor VIIa was greater than that of aPCC in some studies, the greater initial efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa than aPCC resulted in lower predicted total medical costs. Results were generally robust to plausible changes in key parameters. Orthopaedic surgery with recombinant factor VIIa to maintain haemostasis in haemophilia patients with inhibitors was generally predicted to be cost saving, relative to not having surgery, over the medium to long term in modelled cost analyses from a healthcare payer perspective in the UK and US. The initial cost of surgery was high, but the difference in costs between patients undergoing or not undergoing surgery was predicted to decline over time, as savings were realised from the decrease in the number of bleeding episodes requiring treatment in patients who underwent surgery. In haemophilia patients with inhibitors, recombinant factor VIIa is clinically effective in controlling mild to moderate bleeds, and in maintaining haemostasis in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Available pharmacoeconomic data from several countries, despite inherent limitations, support the use of recombinant factor VIIa as a treatment option that is at least cost neutral relative to aPCC in treating mild to moderate bleeds in this patient population. In addition, orthopaedic surgery with recombinant factor VIIa to maintain haemostasis in haemophilia patients with inhibitors is generally cost saving relative to not having surgery over the medium to long term, as the acquisition costs of recombinant factor VIIa are offset by cost savings resulting from the decrease in the number of joint-related bleeds.
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