Cost Effectiveness of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators for Primary Prevention in a Belgian Context
Hans Van Brabandt
Background: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy was traditionally applied in patients who survived a cardiac arrest or who experienced a symptomatic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Its use in primary prevention (i.e. in patients who have yet to experience a serious arrhythmic event, but who are considered at high risk for sudden cardiac death) has become more common, and policy makers question whether ICD therapy should be reimbursed in these instances. Objective: To assess the cost effectiveness of primary prevention ICD therapy versus conventional therapy from the perspective of the Belgian health insurance system. Method: A lifetime 1-month cycle Markov model was constructed and populated with clinical and effectiveness data from the SCD-HeFT study and real-world Belgian cost data expressed in year 2005 values. Probabilistic modelling and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: ICD therapy results in 1.22 life-years gained (LYG) or 1.03 QALYs gained. The lifetime cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios were _59_989 (95% CI 35_873, 113_518) per LYG and _71_428 (95% CI 40_225, 134_623) per QALY gained, respectively. A cost-effectiveness ratio <_50_000 per QALY gained was obtained in 15.5% of 1000 simulations. Increasing the service life of the device from 5 to 7 years would improve the cost effectiveness to _57_229 (95% CI 32_568, 106_410) per QALY gained. Conclusions: ICD therapy may not be judged cost effective for the primary prevention of death in patients with a SCD-HeFT profile in the Belgian context using current technology and patient selection. A combination of price reductions and increased service life of the device may alter this conclusion. DOI: 10.2165/0148365-200806010-00006
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