DIFFERENT GROWTH BEHAVIOR OF Ge, Al AND Sb ON GRAPHITE
SUNIL SINGH KUSHVAHA
Growth of Ge, Al and Sb on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was systematically investigated using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At room temperature (RT), three dimensional (3D) clusters of all three elements nucleate and grow at the step edges and defect sites of HOPG. The clusters of Al and Ge form chains, while Sb islands are mostly isolated. With further deposition at RT, Al clusters grow and coarsen into faceted islands with craters on the top (111) facets, whereas ramified single- and double-layer cluster islands are observed for Ge. When deposited or annealed at T â¥ 175Â°C, Ge forms crystallites but with randomly oriented facets. As spherical Sb islands grow beyond certain size, (111) facets appear on the top. Additionally, crystalline 2D films and 1D nanorods are observed for Sb deposited at RT. At T â 100Â°C and higher flux, only the 2D and 1D Sb islands are formed. These different growth behaviors reflect the unique nature in which the atoms (molecules), clusters and crystallites of each element interact with HOPG surface and with each other.
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