Characteristic aspect of nature in different zones
III.Culture of Characteristic Exotic Plants
Influence of well contrasted grouping
On the laying out of parks and gardens
HISTORY OF THE PHYSICAL CONTEMPLATION OF THE UNIVERSE
Division into historic periods, or epochs of progress, in the generalisation of physical views
First Epoch Knowledge of nature possessed by the nations who in early times inhabited the coasts of the Mediterranean, and the extension of that knowledge by attempts at distant navigation towards the N. E. (the Argonauts); towards the South (Ophir); and towards the West (Colæus of Samos)
Second Epoch Military expeditions of the Macedonians under Alexander the Great. Fusion of the East with the West under Greek dominion and influence. Enlargement of the knowledge of nature possessed by the Greeks consequent on these events
Third Epoch Increase of the knowledge of nature under the Ptolemies. Alexandrian Institution. Tendency of the period towards the generalisation of the views of nature, both in regard to the earth and to the regions of space
Fourth Epoch The Roman Empire of the world.
-Influence on cosmical views of a great political union of countries. Progress of Geography through commerce by land. Pliny's physical description of the universe. The rise of Christianity promotes the feeling of the unity of the human race
Fifth Epoch Invasion of the Arabians. Aptitude of this portion of the Semitic race for intellectual cultivation. Influence of a foreign element on the development of European civilisation and culture. Attachment of the Arabians to the study of nature. Extension of physical geography, and advances in astronomy and in the mathematical [ect.]
Sixth Epoch Oceanic Discoveries. Opening of the western hemisphere, Discoveries of the Scandinavians. Columbus. Sebastian Cabot. Vasco de Gama
Seventh Epoch Celestial Discoveries consequent on the invention of the telescope.
-Progress of astronomy and mathematics from Galileo and Kepler to Newton and Leibnitz
Retrospective view of the epochs which have been considered. Wide and varied scope, and close natural connection, of the scientific advances of modern times. The history of the physical sciences gradually becomes that of the Cosmos.