Giving considerable emphasis to an immense array of recently published material and a wealth of new archival findings, Saul Friedlander describes and interprets the steadily increasing anti-Jewish persecution in Germany after the 1933 Nazi accession to power. He demonstrates the interaction between intentions and contingencies, between discernible causes and changing circumstances. Friedlander shows how Nazi ideological objectives and tactical policy decisions enhanced one another and always left an opening for ever more radical moves. The author's extensive use of new documentation brings us the ongoing deliberations of the Nazi party leadership and also of numerous lower-ranking party functionaries, and gives us insight into the mentality of the university and other cultural and professional elites; of leaders of the business and financial world; and of members of the Protestant and Catholic hierarchies. We also encounter ordinary German citizens, who, in the main, passively accepted the waves of dismissals, segregation, humiliation, impoverishment, expulsion, and violence that reached a prewar peak in November 1938 with the organized nationwide Kristallnacht pogrom. As for the victims' attitudes and reactions, they are constantly present at the heart of the narrative.