Backyard and Commercial Piggeries In The Philippines: Environmental Consequences and Pollution Control Options
Ma. Angeles O Catelo
Moises A. Dorado
Elpidio Agbisit, Jr
The increases in hog population have created and exacerbated various environmental, health and other problems (see the review of the literature in the next section). In the Philippines, what is ironic is that while hog output and operation is preponderantly backyard and the bulk of waste is generated in these farms, current regulations and instruments seem virtually unable to influence backyard operators to undertake pollution mitigating activities. Small commercial farms (21-999 heads as per BAS classification) are also practically exempt from monitoring and compliance because the wastewater discharge standard of 30 cu m per day is more or less equivalent to 1,000 heads of hogs being raised (Orbeta and Calara, 1996).
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