The REAL ID Act requires states to adopt standardized procedures and formats for state driver's licenses and IDs. Twenty-one states have passed a law or resolution in formal challenge to REAL ID; only seven states have not initiated a formal challenge. Using qualitative and quantitative analyses, we find that relatively less populous and less wealthy states, which are likely to be more impacted by unfunded mandates and more conservative states, which are more likely to be concerned about retaining state control, were more likely to oppose REAL ID. States with stronger privacy orientations also were more likely to pass statutes or resolutions in opposition. Our qualitative analysis also implies that social advocacy coalitions and state associations played important roles in facilitating and leading state resistance. Copyright 2009, Oxford University Press.
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