Provides a comprehensive description of Australia's climate since widespread instrumental records began early in the 20th century. It provides information about typical and extreme weather conditions across the country. The first section provides background to the current climate with brief descriptions of climates in the distant past (paleoclimates), an indigenous view of our climate, Australian climate classification schemes and a comparison of world climates with Australia's climate. The second section focuses on typical weather patterns that affect Australia, as well as inter-annual and long-term variability and climate change. Selections of time-series graphs and trend maps highlight the changes in the climate that have occurred in the past few decades. Section three contains detailed descriptions of climate elements such as rainfall, temperature, humidity and sunshine. January, July and annual climate maps are provided as well as detailed descriptions of typical conditions. The fourth section highlights the extreme weather events that affect Australia, such as tropical cyclones, floods, drought and heat waves. Specific case studies, which incorporate satellite and radar imagery, provide rich detail about these types of weather phenomena.