The Japanese problem in the United States : an investigation for the Commission on relations with Japan appointed by the Federal council of the churches of Christ in America / by H. A. Millis Millis, Harry A. (Harry Alvin), 1873-1948

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Author
Millis, Harry A. (Harry Alvin), 1873-1948
Subjects
Japanese -- United States; Japanese -- California; United States.
Contents
  • Machine derived contents note: CHAPTER I. THE IMMIGRATION OF JAPANESE TO THE UNITED
  • STATES.
  • The immigration of Japanese before and since 1885. The
  • number larger after 1898. The classes from which the immi-
  • grants were drawn, Though the student element large, the
  • primary motive economic gain. The influence of emigration
  • and supply companies and boarding houses. The Hawaiian
  • Islands served as a stepping-stone. The movement from
  • Canada and Mexico. Opposition to Japanese immigration.
  • Immigration greatly restricted by the agreement relative to
  • passports and the President's order of March 14, 1907. The
  • agreement faithfully observed by Japan. It and the Presi-
  • dent's order have given effective restriction. Admissions
  • and departures since 1908, and effect on the labor supply.
  • The large influx of women, many of them picture brides,"
  • A new factor of growth in the American-born. An estimate
  • of the Japanese population of the Western states. The
  • Japanese as an element in the population of California, and
  • in the labor supplyv Their occupational distribution .
  • CHAPTER II. THE JAPANESE AS WAGE EARNERS IN INDUS-
  • TRIAL PURSUITS.
  • Most of the Japanese first employed as unskilled laborers
  • in a narrow range of occupations. A review of their employ-
  • ment on the railways, in the lumber mills, and in the salmon
  • canneries. With a strong demand for labor, many Japanese
  • were employed on the railways. Found favor because of
  • lower wages accepted, convenient organization, efficiency,
  • and good behavior in camp. Even before restriction their
  • wages tended to rise relatively to those paid others. With
  • restriction underpayment has ceased. A considerable nurm-
  • ber have advanced to supervisory positions, In the railway
  • shops the Japanese have made considerable occupational ad-
  • vance, and with restriction of immigration the former general
  • uniderpayment has rapidly disappeared. The Japanese found
  • employment in a limited number of lumber mills in the North-
  • west, where they were formerly employed at lower wages
  • thani were paid to others, including the East Indians. Since
  • 1907 their number has decreased, underpayment has tended
  • to disappear, and they have advanced somewhat in the occu-
  • pational scale. The Japanese formerly occupied a conspicu-
  • ous place in the salmon canneries, but, unlike the railway
  • companies and the managers of the lumber mills, the salmon
  • packers have not found them to be as satisfactory as other
  • laborers. A summary statement of important facts relating
  • to the employment of Japanese in industry previous to 1907.
  • Subsequent changes 30
  • CiAPTER III THE JAPANESE IN WESTERN CITIES: THEIR
  • WORK AND BUSINEss.
  • The formation of an urban population. Two groups of
  • economic activities. Employment in factories and workshops,
  • domestic service, and in miscellaneous occupations. Have
  • "filled in" as cheap laborers conveniently secured. Japa-
  • nese business for Japanese patrons. Increasing number of
  • establishrents, some of them for " American trade." The
  • laundry trade, the restaurant trade, and the provision and
  • grocery stores show the plane of competition. Serious com-
  • petition limited to a few cases. Population changes and the
  • formation of colonies. Few whites employed by Japanese;
  • the " iving-in " system prevails. Iousing conditions.
  • Changes since 1909. Business in Los Angeiesl Gain in
  • American trade but more trading by Japanese at American
  • stores. Improvement in standards, increase in wages, less
  • underbidding, changing opinion. Opposition in Seattlel The
  • plane of competition and opposition , 50
  • CHAPTER IV. THE JAPANESE IN AGRICULTURE IN WESTERN
  • STATES OTHER THAN CALIFORNIA.
  • The large proportion of Japanese in agricultural pursuits
  • explained. Agricultural activities in Idaho, Utah, and Colo-
  • raco. Observations in northern Colorado. Japanese as
  • farm laborers and tenant farraers in Washington. Character
  • of the farming, rents, labor, etc, The situation in Oregon.
  • Farm statistics, crops, reduction of " wild lands," rent prices,
  • community opinion, etc 79
  • CHIAPTER V. THE JAPANESE AS AGRICULTURAL LABORERS IN
  • CALIFORNIA.
  • The Japanese in agriculture in California, Investigations
  • of farm labor by the State Commissioner of Labor and the
  • Inmigration Commission. The Japanese and intensive farm-
  • ing. Occupations. Important questions. The Immigration
  • Commission quoted at length with reference to history of
  • employment of Japanese, underbidding, organization, and
  • adaptation to labor needs, Wage data. Competition for-
  • merly not on equal terms. Japanese labor, the community's
  • interests, and agricultural expansion. The real problem.
  • Recent developments not significant. The present labor
  • situation. Commissioner MacKenzie's conclusion and the
  • Senate's adverse resolution. Conclusions of the writer's
  • and farmer's opinions. No increase in the bunk-house popu-
  • lation desirable, whatever the race 102
  • CuAPiTEr VL, J,PANESE FARMING IN CAL,FORNIA.
  • The number and acreage of japanese farms. Crops grown.
  • Size of farms. Progress of Japanese as farmers explained by
  • various facts. The effects of Japanese farming 131
  • CHAPTER V11. JAPANESE FARMIUNG: SOME COMMUNITY OB-
  • SERVATIONS.
  • F i,tiN - The Florin district and the place occupied by
  • Japanese twenty.five years ago and the development of a
  • new iFlorin Progress and present position of the Japanese
  • as farmers. Community effects, Japanese standards. Busi-
  • ness relations Community opinion. Social considerations.
  • Tin VACA VALLEY
  • ruit growing and the Japanese.
  • Some labor history. Leasing by Japanese. Character of the
  • tenure. Community effects. Changes since 1908. Rela-
  • tions between the races.
  • SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
  • The Japanese population and
  • the position occupied. Japanese farmers in Los Angeles
  • county and their competition with other growers. Tenancy
  • expl'ained. Some typical localities where tenant farming is
  • found. Other localities. General impressions. Anti-Japa-
  • nese feeling not strong.
  • LIVINGSTON An exceptional community. Personal ob-
  • servations 152
  • CHAPTER VIII. ALIEN LAND LEGISLATION IN CALIFORNIA.
  • The alien land law of 1913 the outcome of a long struggle.
  • Preelection promises. Legislative history, organized lobby-
  • ing, and organized opposition to any legislation. Provisions
  • of the law enacted and of the treaty with Japan. Protests
  • from the Japanese government. The law unjust, impolitic,
  • and unnecessary. No real problem calling for such legisla-
  • tion, Nevertheless the great majority of Californians favor
  • the law. The present movement to prohibit the leasing of
  • agricultural lands 197
  • CHAPTER IX. JAPANESE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE WESTERN
  • MIND.
  • Widespread opposition to the Japanese. Why? They
  • have much merit in education, eagerness to learn English,
  • sobriety, observance of awu, etc. They are, however, a
  • colored race; are racially different have inherited the preju-
  • dice against the Chinese have given rise to economic con-
  • flict; are accused of frequent breaches of contract, and of
  • being ambitious, ' cocky," and clannish. The attitude of the
  • japanese government and Japanese organizations Agita-
  • tion. The questions of assimilation and amalgamation o 227
  • CHAPTER X. THE PROBLEM OF ASSIMILATION.
  • Co flicting views relating to the possibility of assimilating
  • the Japanese. The writer's conclusions, The Japanese sen-
  • sitive to their environment, conform quickly to certain stand-
  • ards - as in dress, furnishings, etc, and make rapid prog-
  • ress in learning Erglish. The children and the schools.
  • What of religion, patriotism, and clannishness ? Complete
  • assimilability must remain a disputed question. Will the
  • W'est give necessary cooperation? Without a restricted
  • immigration, assimilation would not take place. Race
  • mixture pretty much of a " bogie " 251
  • CHAPTER X. SOME SUGGESTIONS CONSIDERED.
  • "Two questions raised by the "Japanese Problem," one re-
  • iating to admission, the other to the treatment accorded those
  • admitted. Conclusions of the Immigration Commission re-
  • lating to Asiatic immigration, The agreement with Japan
  • effective, but Japanese immigration always under discussion.
  • Exclusion bills and the West. The position of the Japanese
  • government. Dissatisfaction in Japan. American standards
  • should be protected, but exclusion under present circum-
  • stances would be illogical and an affront to Japan. Dr.
  • Gulick's plan and a modification of it. Its merits. General
  • restriction of immigration from Europe and Asia needed.
  • Once admitted, equal treatment should be accorded immi-
  • grants. The naturalization law discriminates. Amendment
  • to eliminate racial distinctions considered, Any legislation
  • involves risk 9 276
  • APPENDIX A. EXTRACTS iROM THE TREATY OF COMMERCE
  • AND NAVIGATION BETWEEN JAPAN AND THE UNITED
  • STATES 313
  • APPENDIX B. CALIFORNIA'S ALIEN LAND LAW 316
  • APPENDIX C. A STATEMENT .CONCERNING THE STRUGGLE
  • OVER THE ENACTMENT OF THE CALIFORTNIA ALIEN LAND
  • LAW 320.
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Work ID
676933

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