For the five Central Eastern European countries Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia (CEEC 5), European Union membership will foster economic development and trade with Western Europe. Greater division of labour and growing demand for goods, services and international travel, driven by rising income levels, are pushing up the growth of cross-border transport of people and goods. Passenger traffic is further multiplied by commuter traffic in the wake of the free movement of labour. The Austrian transport network will be burdened not just by bilateral traffic but also by transit traffic between the CEEC 5 and Western Europe. With car ownership in the CEEC 5 still at a relatively low level, it is expected that the growth of passenger traffic will primarily affect road transport. If the road transport of goods were completely liberalised, as foreseen in the acquis communautaire, this would lead to unchecked growth of heavy-goods traffic to and from the CEEC 5. If we assume that the CEEC 5 will join the EU in 2004, that road use will not be subject to serious price increases and that the infrastructure capacities will be adapted to the growth of traffic on an ongoing basis, source-destination heavy-goods transport would quadruple by 2015, and transit traffic would grow fivefold in comparison to 1994. Source-destination rail transport, on the other hand, would grow by just 20 percent and rail transit traffic is expected to double up to 2015. In spite of considerable modal split shifts to the road, the share of cross-border road transport of goods with the CEEC 5 would take until 2015 to attain the level already current in cross-border goods traffic within the EU.
Auswirkungen der EU-Erweiterung auf den Verkehr in Österreich; Effects of EU Enlargement on Transport in Austria
Accelerated economic growth, which is envisaged to ensue through integrating CEECs in the European Union, will give a boost to tourist traffic from the accession candidates. Additional passenger traffic will derive from the free movement of labour, which will in particular intensify commuter traffic in the eastern border regions of Austria. Similarly, citizens from the potential member countries currently working in western EU countries will use Austria's network of roads for commuting on a weekly or monthly basis and during the main holiday periods. Through the operation of the internal market, international trade by the accession states with the EU will grow. Liberalisation of cross-border truck transport will produce a strong growth in the share of road transport. Bilateral transports to and from the five Eastern Central European candidate states would, under the current projection, quadruple by 2015, and transit traffic would rise fivefold.
European Eastern Enlargement, Traffic Policies, Austria; Effects of EU Enlargement on Transport in Austria
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