Determinants and implications of the growing scale of livestock farms in four fast-growing developing countries / Christopher L. Delgado, Clare A. Narrod, Marites M. Tiongco ; with Geraldo Sant'Ana de Camargo Barros ... [et al.] Delgado, Christopher L

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Author
Delgado, Christopher L
Subjects
Livestock systems - Developing countries.; Livestock productivity - Economic aspects - Developing countries.; Livestock farms - Developing countries.
Contents
  • Machine derived contents note: Table Of Contents
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS i
  • LIST OF TABLES iii
  • LIST OF FIGURES v
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vi
  • SUMMARY viii
  • 1. Introduction 1
  • Livestock Industrialization 1
  • Main Objective, Assumptions, and Approach 2
  • Possible Drivers of Livestock Industrialization 5
  • Why Scaling-up of Production Matters for Pro-poor and Sustainable
  • Growth Policies 15
  • Hypotheses to be Tested 18
  • 2. Growth, Concentration, and Integration of the Livestock Sector in the
  • Study Countries 28
  • Growth and Concentration in the Philippines 28
  • Growth and Concentration in Thailand 32
  • Growth and Concentration in India 37
  • Growth and Concentration in Brazil 41
  • Vertical Integration of Smallholders Through Contract Farming 44
  • 3. Approach 53
  • The Methodological Challenges 53
  • Defining a Farm-Specific Measure of Relative Competitiveness 54
  • A Methodology to Decompose the Determinants of Relative Profitability 58
  • Measuring Farm-Specific Internalization of Environmental Externalities 68
  • Mass Balance Calculations 72
  • Handling Contract Farming 78
  • 4. Data and Surveys 81
  • Sample Locations and their Characteristics 81
  • Commodities Selected 86
  • Rationale for Size Category 86
  • Sample Size and Composition 89
  • Types of Contracts for Poultry and Hogs Observed in the Study Countries 92
  • Timing and Extent of Survey 96
  • 5. Profile of the Survey Samples 100
  • Scale-Related Differences in Prices of Inputs and Outputs Across Scale of Farms 100
  • Scale-Related Differences in Access to Information, Markets, and Services 108
  • Comparative Profit Performance 114
  • 6. Impact of Scaling-Up of Livestock Production on the Environment 128
  • Environmental Problems Associated With Growing Livestock Sectors 128
  • Environmental Externalities and the Rationale for Government Intervention 130
  • Policies and Institutional Mechanisms to Mitigate Environmental
  • Pollution Problems Stemming from Livestock in the Study Countries 135
  • Enforcement Problems and Differential Impacts of Enforcement on
  • Scale of Production 139
  • Capture of Environmental Externalities 142
  • 7. Empirical Results 185
  • Comparison of Average Profit Efficiency Across Farm Classes 186
  • Explanation of Farm-Specific Profit Inefficiency in Terms of
  • Differential Transaction and Environmental Mitigation Costs 192
  • Summary of Results for the Hypotheses Tests 203
  • 8. Conclusions 227
  • Profits and Relative Profit Efficiency: Who Does Best Across Size Groups? 229
  • Why Are Some Farms More Efficient At Making Profits Than Others? 235
  • What is the Outlook for Independent Smallholder Livestock Farming? 242
  • Implications for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainability Policies 244
  • References 256
  • List Of Tables
  • Table 1.1 Food consumption of meat and milk by region, 1982/84 and 2003/05 25
  • Table 1.2 Production growth rates in developing countries, 1975-2005 26
  • Table 1.3 Linking issues to empirical tests 27
  • Table 2.1 Farm size in Thailand by type of animal 50
  • Table 2.2 Livestock households, agricultural households and their farm income 51
  • Table 2.3 Household income from agricultural produce and number of
  • farm holdings (in current and 1994 baht) 52
  • Table 3.1 Converting animal liveweight to crop nutrients 80
  • Table 4.1 Size of operations by country and type of livestock farm 98
  • Table 4.2 Sampling distribution by country/region/province and type of
  • livestock farm (number of farms) 99
  • Table 5.1 Output price of milk across farm sizes by country, 2002 121
  • Table 5.2 Output price of live broiler across farm sizes by country, 2002 122
  • Table 5.3 Output price of pigs and piglets across farm sizes by country, 2002 123
  • Table 5.4 Average profit per liter of milk across farm sizes by country, 2002 124
  • Table 5.5 Average profit per unit of output of liveweight broiler across
  • farm sizes by country and by production arrangement, 2002. 125
  • Table 5.6 Average profit per egg across farm sizes by country, 2002. 126
  • Table 5.7 Profit per kilogram liveweight of output of swine across
  • farm sizes by country and production arrangement, 2002 127
  • Table 6.1 Distribution of farmers by manure disposal methods,
  • broiler production (%) 161
  • Table 6.2 Distribution of farmers by manure disposal methods,
  • layer production (%) 162
  • Table 6.3 Distribution of farmers by manure disposal methods,
  • swine production (%) 163
  • Table 6.4 Distribution of farmers by manure disposal methods,
  • dairy production (%) 164
  • Table 6.5 Manure markets in the Philippines 165
  • Table 6.6 Average price of manure by Brazilian state (R$/ton) 166
  • Table 6.7 Distribution of farmers by dead animal disposal method,
  • broiler production (in percent) 167
  • Table 6.8 Distribution of farmers by dead animal disposal method,
  • layer production (in percent) 168
  • Table 6.9 Distribution of farmers by dead animal disposal method,
  • swine production (in percent) 169
  • Table 6.10 Environmental expenditures per kilogram output of
  • liveweight broiler or eggs 170
  • Table 6.11 Environmental expenditures per kilogram output of swine product 171
  • Table 6.12 Environmental expenditures per unit output of dairy product 172
  • Table 6.13 Determinants of farm expenditure on mitigation of environmental
  • externalities from swine, Thailand, 2002-03 173
  • Table 6.14 Determinants of farm expenditure on mitigation of environmental
  • externalities from broiler production, Thailand, 2002-03 174
  • Table 6.15 Determinants of farm expenditure on mitigation of environmental
  • externalities from broiler production, Philippines, 2002-03 175
  • Table 7.1 Mean relative profit efficiency of broiler farms across farm sizes
  • by country, 2002 207
  • Table 7.2 Mean relative profit efficiency of layer farms across farm sizes
  • by country, 2002 208
  • Table 7.3 Mean relative profit efficiency of swine farms across farm sizes
  • by country, 2002 209
  • Table 7.4 Mean relative profit efficiency of dairy farms across farm sizes
  • by country, 2002 210
  • Table 7.5 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Philippines broiler farms 211
  • Table 7.6 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Thai broiler farms 212
  • Table 7.7 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Indian broiler farms 213
  • Table 7.8 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Brazilian layer farms 214
  • Table 7.9 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Indian layer farms 215
  • Table 7.10 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Philippines swine farms 216
  • Table 7.11 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Brazilian swine farms 217
  • Table 7.12 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Indian dairy farms 218
  • Table 7.13 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Thai dairy farms 219
  • Table 7.14 Profit efficiency estimated and explained on Brazilian dairy farms 220
  • Table 7.15 Summary of empirical results 221
  • List Of Figures
  • Figure 2.1 Native chicken and broiler chicken inventories,
  • Philippines, 1990-2006 47
  • Figure 2.2 Broilers (imported hybrids) rule in the Metro Manila area
  • (Regions III and IV-A), 2006 48
  • Figure 2.3 Growth of commercial and backyard inventories in hog farms
  • in Southern Luzon (CALABARZON), 1990-2006 49
  • Figure 6.1 Pathways for disposal of poultry manure and dead birds 177
  • Figure 6.2 Pathways for disposal of swine manure and dead piglets 178
  • Figure 6.3 Pathways for disposal of dairy manure and dead animals 179
  • Figure 6.4 Nitrogen mass balance calculations for swine households
  • surveyed in Thailand, 2002 180
  • Figure 6.5 Nitrogen mass balance calculations for broiler households
  • surveyed in Thailand, 2002 181
  • Figure 6.6 Nitrogen mass balance calculations for broiler households
  • surveyed in India, 2002 182
  • Figure 6.7 Nitrogen mass balance calculations for dairy households
  • surveyed in India, 2002 183
  • Figure 6.8 Nitrogen mass balance calculations for layer households
  • surveyed in Thailand, 2002 184
  • Figure 7.1 Distribution of efficiency scores for broiler farms in the Philippines 222
  • Figure 7.2 Distribution of efficiency scores for broiler farms in India 223
  • Figure 7.3 Distribution of efficiency scores for layer farms in India 224
  • Figure 7.4 Distribution of efficiency scores for swine farms in Brazil 225
  • Figure 7.5 Distribution of efficiency scores for dairy farms in Thailand 226.
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http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/57445
Work ID
57445

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