The importance of women's status for child nutrition in developing countries: Smith, Lisa C.; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Ndiaye, Aida; ...

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Authors
Smith, Lisa C. ; Ramakrishnan, Usha ; Ndiaye, Aida ; Haddad, Lawrence James ; Martorell, Reynaldo
Subjects
Malnutrition in children - Developing countries.; children developing countries nutrition; latin america
Contents
  • Machine derived contents note: Contents
  • List of Tables ii
  • List of Figures vi
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Summary x
  • 1. Introduction 1
  • 2. Conceptual Framework 7
  • 3. Data, Measures, and Methods 27
  • 4. Results: Women's Status and Child Nutrition 57
  • 5. Results: Women's Status,Women's Nutritional Status, and Care for Women 75
  • 6. Results: Women's Status and Care for Children 84
  • 7. The Asian Enigma 100
  • 8. Conclusions and Policy Implications 110
  • Appendix A: Model of Household Decisionmaking 134
  • Appendix B: Validation of Measure of Women's Relative Decisionmaking Power 149
  • Appendix C: Creation of Measure of Household Economic Status 157
  • References 164
  • List of Tables
  • 1.1 Prevalence and number of underweight children under five years, 1995 181
  • 1.2 Comparison of progress made by South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa in some
  • determinants of child nutritional status 182
  • 1.3 Inequalities between women and men and women's health, 1990s 183
  • 3.1 Description of data sets employed and study sample sizes 184
  • 3.2 Dependent variables of the study 185
  • 3.3 Means of indicators of women's decisionmaking power relative to men's, by
  • region and country 186
  • 3.4 Correlation matrix for indicators of women's relative decisionmaking
  • power 187
  • 3.5 Index of women's relative decisionmaking power: Factor analysis output 188
  • 3.6 Means of indicators of societal gender equality, by country and region 189
  • 3.7 Correlation matrix for indicators of societal gender equality 190
  • 3.8 Index of societal gender equality: Factor analysis output 191
  • 3.9 Independent variables of the study (socioeconomic determinants) 192
  • 4.1 Child nutritional status, by region and country (Z-scores) 193
  • 4.2 Women's status, by region and country 194
  • 4.3 Effect of women's status on child weight-for-age Z-scores: Global
  • model (OLS regression) 195
  • 4.4 Effect of women's status on child weight-for-age Z-scores: Regression
  • results, by region (OLS regression) 196
  • 4.5 Effect of women's status on child height-for-age Z-scores: Regression
  • results, by region (OLS regression) 198
  • 4.6 Effect of women's status on child weight-for-height Z-scores: Regression
  • results, by region (OLS regression) 200
  • 4.7 Effect of women's status on stunting, wasting, and underweight of children
  • (logistic regression, summary of results) 202
  • 4.8 Means of women's status indexes across economic status groups 203
  • 4.9 Effect of women's status on child nutritional status, by economic status
  • group 204
  • 5.1 Women's body mass index, by region (nonpregnant women) 205
  • 5.2 Effect of women's status on their body mass index: Regression results, by region
  • (OLS regression) 206
  • 5.3 Effect of women's status on their nutritional status: underweight and overweight
  • (Logistic regression, summary of results) 208
  • 5.4 Prenatal and birthing care, by region 209
  • 5.5 Effect of women's status on whether woman received any prenatal care:
  • Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 210
  • 5.6 Effect of women's status on whether a woman who received prenatal care
  • had at least three visits: Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 212
  • 5.7 Effect of women's status on number of months before birth of woman's
  • first prenatal visit: Regression results, by region (OLS regression) 214
  • 5.8 Effect of women's status on whether woman gives birth in a medical
  • facility: Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 216
  • 5.9 Effect of women's status on prenatal and birthing care: Summary of
  • results (OLS or logistic regression) 218
  • 6.1 Child feeding practices, by region 219
  • 6.2 Effect of women's status on whether breastfeeding is initiated within one day
  • of birth: Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 220
  • 6.3 Effect of women's status on whether child 0-4 months is exclusively breastfed:
  • Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 222
  • 6.4 Effect of women's status on whether child 0-4 months receives nothing from a
  • bottle: Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 224
  • 6.5 Effect of women's status on number of months of breastfeeding:
  • Regression results, by region (OLS regression) 226
  • 6.6 Effect of women's status on whether child 6-12 months receives
  • complementary foods: Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 228
  • 6.7 Effect of women's status on whether child more than 6 months receives high
  • quality food: Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 230
  • 6.8 Effect of women's status on number of times per day child more than 6 months
  • eats: Regression results, by region (OLS regression) 232
  • 6.9 Effect of women's status on breastfeeding and complementary feeding:
  • Summary of results (OLS or logistic regression) 234
  • 6.10 Health and health-seeking practices, by region 235
  • 6.11 Effect of women's status on whether child diarrhea is treated: Regression
  • results, by region (logistic regression) 236
  • 6.12 Effect of women's status on whether child has ever been vaccinated :
  • Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 238
  • 6.13 Effect of women's status on whether child has received recommended
  • immunizations: Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 240
  • 6.14 Effect of women's status on health-seeking practices: Summary of results (logistic
  • regression) 242
  • 6.15 Effect of women's status on whether child has an adult caretaker while
  • mother is working: Regression results, by region (logistic regression) 243
  • 7.1 Comparison of levels of and effects on child nutritional status of
  • women's status and other behavioral determinants: South Asia and Sub-
  • Saharan Africa 245
  • 7.2 Determinants of child weight-for-age Z-scores: South Asia and Sub-Saharan
  • Africa model (OLS regression) 246
  • 7.3 Comparison of proximal determinants of child nutritional status: South
  • Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa 247
  • 8.1 Examples of public policy to improve women's status 248
  • B.1 Description of validation variables used in validation analysis of the
  • measure of women's relative decisionmaking power 249
  • B.2 Validation of indicators of women's decisionmaking power relative to men's:
  • Descriptive results 250
  • B.3 Validation of indicators of women's decisionmaking power relative to men's:
  • Probit regression results (marginal effects) 251
  • C.1 Availability of asset ownership data in DHS data sets 252
  • C.2 Percent of households falling into economic status groups, by country
  • and region 254
  • List of Figures
  • 2.1 Causes of child malnutrition 255
  • 2.2 Women's status and care for children and children's birth weights 256
  • 3.1 Distribution of index of women's relative decisionmaking power 257
  • 3.2 Distribution of index of societal gender equality 258
  • 4.1 Percentage of stunted, wasted, and underweight children, by region 259
  • 4.2 Women's status indexes, by region 260
  • 4.3 Predicted child nutritional status Z-scores, by indexes of women's status 261
  • 4.4 Predicted child malnutrition, by indexes of women's status 262
  • 4.5 Effect of women's relative decisionmaking power on child weight-for-age Z-
  • scores, South Asian countries 263
  • 4.6 Effect of women's relative decisionmaking power on child weight-for-age
  • Z-scores, Sub-Saharan African countries 264
  • 4.7 Effect of women's relative decisionmaking power
  • on child weight-for-age Z-scores, Latin America and the Caribbean countries 265
  • 4.8 Effect of societal gender equality on child weight-for-age Z-scores, South Asian
  • countries 266
  • 4.9 Effect of societal gender equality on child weight-for-age Z-scores, Sub-Saharan
  • African countries 267
  • 4.10 Effect of societal gender equality on child weight-for-age Z-scores, Latin America
  • and the Caribbean countries 268
  • 5.1Percentage of nonpregnant women with low and high body mass index (BMI) 269
  • 5.2 Predicted women's body mass index, by indexes of women's status 270
  • 5.3 Predicted probability of a woman's being malnourished, by indexes of
  • women's status 271
  • 5.4 Percentage of women who receive any prenatal care and who give birth in a
  • medical facility 272
  • 5.5 Predicted prenatal care variables, by indexes of women's status 273
  • 5.6 Predicted probability of women giving birth in a medical facility, by
  • indexes of women's status 274
  • 6.1 Predicted breastfeeding variables, by indexes of women's status 275
  • 6.2 Predicted complementary feeding variables, by indexes of women's status 277
  • 6.3 Predicted health-seeking variables, by indexes of women's status 278
  • 6.4 Type of caregiver while woman is working (%) 279
  • 6.5 Predicted probability of child having an adult caretaker while mother is
  • working, by women's status
  • 7.1 Contribution of levels difference in women's status to the child nutritional status
  • gap between South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: A graphical illustration
  • 7.2 Contribution of effect difference in women's status to the child nutritional status
  • B.1 Predicted probability of a woman having "high" status, by indicators of
  • women's relative decisionmaking power 282
  • B.2 Predicted probability of a woman having "high" status, by index of woman's
  • relative decisionmaking power
  • C.1 Creation of economic status groups: Destitute, poor, middle, and rich 253.
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http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/57379
Work ID
57379

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