Taxation trends in the European Union: 2003 edition
The publication "Structures of the taxation systems in the European Union" presents time series of tax data from national accounts for the fifteen Member States of the European Union. It provides a breakdown of taxes according to three different types of classification: by major type of tax (i.e. direct taxes, indirect taxes, social contributions), by levels of government (i.e. central-, state- and local government, social security funds and the European institutions) and by economic function (i.e. consumption, labour and capital). It also compiles implicit tax rates(ITRs) on consumption, labour and capital, which measure the effective average tax burden on different types of economic income or activity. ITRs express tax revenues that can be allocated to these economic categories as a percentage of the total potential tax base in the economy. The publication also presents data on environmental taxes.
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