The Rise in Low-income Rates Among Immigrants in Canada
This study uses census data to focus on low-income among immigrants, and asks a number of questions: (1) have low-income rates increased among successive cohorts of entering immigrants, both in absolute terms and relative to the Canadian born (they have), (2) is this increase due to changes in their characteristics (e.g. education, age, source country, language etc.), (3) do low-income rates fall as new immigrants acquire Canadian experience, and are there signs that low-income rates fall faster among the more recent entering cohorts with the higher entry level rates, resulting in some "catch-up", and (4) in the major Canadian cities, to what extent was the deterioration in the city level low-income rates during the 1990s concentrated among immigrants? The analysis covers the period from 1980 to 2000, and focuses on change between 1980 to 1990, and 1990 to 2000, years that are roughly at business cycle peaks. The study finds that low-income rates among "recent" immigrants (in Canada for less than five years) almost doubled between 1980 and 1995, and then fell during the strong recovery of the late 1990s. However, when focusing on outcomes at business cycle peaks (1980, 1990 and 2000) to establish comparable long-term, low-income rates rose continuously for each successive cohort of immigrants. Furthermore, the gap at entry in their low-income rate relative to the Canadian-born also rose over the 1980-2000 period. The changing composition of "recent" immigrants with respect to language, source country, family type and age accounted for, at most, half of the rise in the low-income rate among this group, and likely substantially less than that. Most of the increase was a result of the widespread rise in low-income among recent immigrants in all age groups, family types, language groups, education groups, and most of the more significant (numerically) source regions, notably Africa and the Asian source regions. The peak to peak ris
Labour, Income, pensions, spending and wealth, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Employment and unemployment, Wages, salaries and other earnings, Household, family and personal income, Immigrants and non-permanent residents, Integration of newcomers, Labour market and income, Low income and inequality
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