Extreme dependence in the NASDAQ and S&P 500 composite indexes
Dependence among large observations in equity markets is usually examined using second-moment models such as those from the GARCH or SV classes. Such models treat the entire set of returns, and tend to produce similar estimates on different major equity markets, with a sum of estimated GARCH parameters, for example, slightly below one. Using dependence measures from extreme value theory, however, it is possible to characterize dependence among only the largest (or largest negative) financial returns; these alternative characterizations of clustering have important applications in risk management. In this article we compare the NASDAQ and S&P in this way, and implement tests which can be used for the null hypothesis of the same degree of extreme dependence. Although GARCH-type characterizations of second-moment dependence in the two markets produce similar results, the same is not true in the extremes: we find significantly more extreme dependence in the NASDAQ returns. More generally, the study of extreme dependence may reveal contrasts which are obscured when examining the conditional second moment.
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