Empowerment in project teams: a multilevel examination of the job performance implications
Martin Morgan Tuuli
An integrative multilevel model of empowerment and job performance behaviours is advanced, building on social cognitive theory (SCT). Empowerment climate is hypothesized as influencing individual and team performance behaviours directly and partially through individual and team (psychological) empowerment. Using survey responses from 380 individuals, nested in 115 project management teams, we tested the direct, indirect and cross-level relationships delineated in the multilevel model, using a combination of OLS regression models and hierarchical linear modelling (HLM). Empowerment climate positively related not only directly to both task and contextual performance behaviours but partially through both individual and team empowerment. At the team level, empowerment climate also positively related directly to taskwork and teamwork behaviours and partially through team empowerment. The results suggest that empowerment climate and psychological empowerment play complementary roles in engendering individual and team performance behaviours and are therefore not mutually exclusive. The findings are also evident of convergence in management practices across cultures as well as different work contexts and further provide concrete targets of manipulation by organizations and leaders desirous of empowering individuals and teams in the project context.
Empowerment climate, hierarchical linear modelling (HLM), job performance behaviours, psychological empowerment, social cognitive theory (SCT),
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