We develop an incomplete contract model to analyze the enlargement strategy of a club. An applicant is characterized by his wealth and the degree of conformity with the club standard. The club gains only from a fully reformed new members, but reforms is costly. The club chooses between early admittance, where it can enforce reform through its partial control power, and late admittance, where entry is conditioned on completed reform. Under the optimal enlargement strategy of the club, wealth applicants pay an entrance fee and enter early, and poor applicants enter in reversed order: A less advanced is admitted early and a more advanced ate. Moreover, poor applicants extract rents that increase in the ration of reform distance to wealth. If the club can impose a deadline for late entry, it can eliminate all rents with stage financing. In the dynamic game renegotiation undermines the viability of the late admittance strategy. In the finite game, and applicants rent from a late offer is non-monotonic in his reform distance and the ability to deteriorate his reform status strategically need not be detrimental to the club.
Within an incomplete contract framework, we analyze the enlargement strategy of a club facing applicants that differ in wealth and reform status. While an applicant benefits from entry, the club only gains if the entrant makes an adjustment investment. The club has a choice between early admittance, using its limited internal enforcement powers to ensure reform, and late admittance conditional on prior reform. Wealthy candidates enter early as the club can charge a higher entrance fee for undiscounted membership benefits. For poor applicants, the club applies a reversed admittance order: A less advanced applicant is admitted early to reform as member, while a more advanced enters late after it has reformed. Moreover, the admittance rents increase in the ratio of reform distance to wealth. The viability of the late admittance strategy depends on the club's commitment ability. If the club can credibly commit to a stage-financing schedule, it can induce applicants to reform without overfunding. In the repeated game, the threat of denying additional funding is not credible, and more overfunding is required for reform.
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