We investigated the physical and occupational capabilities of male and females soldiers before and after 12 weeks of specialised physical training. The Combat Fitness Assessment (CFA) was employed to assess the infantry-related occupational capabilities, which consisted of a 15-km march at 5.5 km/h followed by the Run-Dodge-Jump (RDJ) activity. All soldiers (35 males and 28 females) carried 34.6 kg, which was based on the requirements for a 3-day operation. Physiological assessments of muscular strength and endurance, and aerobic and anaerobic capacities were also performed. All males could complete the RDJ in a rested state, prior to the march, whereas the majority of females (57%) could not complete the RDJ with weapon and webbing. The majority of males (91%) completed the 15-km in 165 min, whereas fewer females could complete the march successfully (36%). All infantry soldiers and the majority of combat-corps soldiers (79%) could complete the post-march RDJ in less than 70 sec, whereas the fastest female required 73 sec to complete the course. The specialised physical training improved strength and aerobic capacity for the female group and strength only for the male group, although the female scores remained below those of the males. These improvements did not translate into improved success in the infantry-based CFA task, i.e. no female could pass the 70-sec RDJ barrier. Post-specialised physical training one female completed the post-march RDJ in 73 sec, while another Control female achieved an RDJ time of 65 sec after the physical training period. Therefore, assuming that this small sub-group of female soldiers are representative of the whole Army, it is likely that a small number of female soldiers are physically able to complete this assessment within the same performance limits as current infantry soldiers. The elevated environmental heat stress encountered during the post-specialised physical training CFA potentially masked any possible benefit gained from the physical training program. Combined with the dramatic drop in soldier numbers it is difficult to provide definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of the specialised physical training program. CFA administration should be planned for the cooler less humid months to diminish the likelihood of thermal injuries. If the CFA is conducted in hotter and more humid conditions, longer completion times (allowing rest periods), reduced distance and lighter loads should be considered.