This bulletin reviews research that is relevant to answering the question: should the number of persons enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) be expanded as part of a larger strategy to reduce drug and property crime among opioid-dependent offenders? First the bulletin summarises what is known about heroin dependence and its influence on crime. Then it reviews research on the impact of MMT on criminal behaviour among heroindependent offenders. The next two sections describe the current market for MMT in Australia and consider the ways in which we may increase the number of dependent heroin users who are enrolled in MMT. The bulletin concludes with a discussion of ways in which the number of persons enrolled in MMT can be increased as one way of reducing crime committed by dependent heroin users.