The poor health of prisoners during imprisonment is well documented, but there have been few, if any studies into the longer term health prospects for prisoners after their release into the community. This research is the first to use linked administrative data to track the continuing health problems of and use of health services by prisoners in Western Australia before and after their imprisonment. The inter-relationship between social disadvantage, mental health problems and the poor physical health of many prisoners is a key theme emerging from the research. The analysis of the risk of morbidity and mortality demonstrates that female prisoners have a high risk of mental disorders and that Indigenous prisoners have multiple, long standing health issues, including those linked to alcohol and drug misuse. This research provides important empirical evidence of the high health needs of prisoners, particularly soon after release, and supports the allocation of resources for multiple and specific services both within and outside the prison system.