The Gender Pay Gap and Trade Liberalisation: Evidence for India
Puja Vasudeva Dutta
This paper uses nationally representative employment surveys to examine the magnitude of the gender pay gap in India and its relationship to a set of trade liberalisation measures. Separate wage equations, corrected for selection bias, are estimated for men and women in wage employment. Conventional index number procedures are used to decompose the gender pay gap into ‘endowment’ and ‘treatment’ components. The ‘treatment’ components comprise about one-third of the overall wage gap – a result in comport with the existing evidence for India. There is some evidence that the ‘treatment’ or residual components are declining over time but the point estimates for the differentials in these components between the initial and terminal years of our analysis are found to be imprecisely determined. A methodology suggested by Horrace and Oaxaca (2001) is used to compute industry specific gender pay gaps and their relationship with selected trade-related measures (e.g., tariff rates and trade ratios) is then examined econometrically within a GLS framework. We find little evidence that the trade-related measures are important determinants of the industry-level gender pay gap and appear to have exerted a relatively benign influence on the evolution of the industry gender pay gap in India over the last two decades.
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