2015, 2009, 2016, English, Article, Journal or magazine article edition: Separate and Joint Effects of Alcohol and Smoking on the Risks of Cirrhosis and Gallbladder Disease in Middle-aged Women Liu, Bette; Balkwill, Angela; Roddam, Andrew W; ...

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Bookmark: http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/221066152
Physical Description
  • journal article
Published
  • Oxford University Press, 2015-12-08T22:25:41Z 2009 2016-02-24T11:15:54Z
Language
  • English

Edition details

Title
  • Separate and Joint Effects of Alcohol and Smoking on the Risks of Cirrhosis and Gallbladder Disease in Middle-aged Women
Author
  • Liu, Bette
  • Balkwill, Angela
  • Roddam, Andrew W
  • Brown, Anna
  • Beral, Valerie
  • Banks, Emily
  • Million Women Study, Collaborators
Published
  • Oxford University Press, 2015-12-08T22:25:41Z 2009 2016-02-24T11:15:54Z
Physical Description
  • journal article
Part Of
  • American Journal of Epidemiology
Subjects
Summary
  • The separate and joint effects of alcohol and smoking on incidences of liver cirrhosis and gallbladder disease were examined in a prospective study of 1,290,413 United Kingdom women (mean age, 56 years) recruited during 1996-2001. After a mean follow-up of 6.1 years (1996-2005), incidence rates of cirrhosis and gallbladder disease were 1.3 per 1,000 persons (n =​ 2,105) and 15 per 1,000 persons (n =​ 23,989), respectively, over 5 years. Cirrhosis risk increased with increasing alcohol consumption, while the risk of gallbladder disease decreased (Ptrend < 0.0001 for each). Comparing women who drank ≥15 units/​week with those who drank 1-2 units/​week, the relative risk was 4.32 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.71, 5.03)) for cirrhosis and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.64) for gallbladder disease. Increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked daily increased the risk of both conditions (Ptrend < 0.0001 for each). Comparing current smokers of ≥20 cigarettes/​day with never smokers, the relative risk was 3.76 (95% CI: 3.25, 4.34) for cirrhosis and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.37) for gallbladder disease. Effects of alcohol and smoking were more than multiplicative for cirrhosis (Pinteraction =​ 0.02) but not for gallbladder disease (Pinteraction =​ 0.4). Findings indicate that alcohol and smoking affect the risks of the 2 conditions in different ways. For cirrhosis, alcohol and smoking separately increase risk, and their joint effects are particularly hazardous. For gallbladder disease, alcohol reduces risk and smoking results in a small risk increase.
Language
  • English
Identifier
  • oai:openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au:1885/​33546
  • 10.1093/​aje/​kwn280
  • oai:digitalcollections.anu.edu.au:1885/​33546
  • 0002-9262

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