Institutional Changes as a Driving Force for Structural Reforms in the Transforming Economies
The article discusses two basic approaches for the structural reform in the countries in transition – evolutionary and innovational. This is done from the viewpoint of the New Institutional Economy (NIE). According to the first approach the institutional changes are described as a result of the process of self-organisation (self-reproduction, self-identification, self-perpetuation) in which only economic factors take part. The aim is to minimise the transaction expenses, i.e. the expenses for the realisation of the deals (the contracts) which leads to the increase of the profits of those who initiated the change. This however is not always accomplished in the desired direction because a historical burden and dependence are present. In many cases society is locked into ineffective institutions and overcoming such situations may be performed only with the active intervention of the state. The innovation approach supposes the involvement of politicians in institutional changes, which inevitably leads to the satisfaction of the interests of separate individuals and groups of persons at the expense of those who were privileged by the previous institutions.
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