The efficiency of Islamic banking industry in Malaysia: Foreign vs domestic banks
Purpose – To examine the relative efficiency between the domestic and foreign banks Islamic banking operations in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach – The paper utilises the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology, which allows for the decomposition of technical efficiency into its pure technical and scale efficiency components. The authors further examined whether the domestic and foreign banks are drawn from the same population by performing a series of parametric and non-parametric tests. Finally, the authors attempt to investigate the consistency of the estimated DEA efficiency scores by examining its relationship with the traditional measures of banks performance. Findings – The results from the DEA suggest that Malaysian Islamic banks efficiency declined in year 2002 to recover slightly in years 2003 and 2004. The domestic Islamic banks were more efficient compared to the foreign Islamic banks albeit marginally. The source of inefficiency of Malaysian Islamic banks in general has been scale, suggesting that Malaysian Islamic banks have been operating at the wrong scale of operations. The results from the parametric and non-parametric tests further suggest that the foreign and domestic banks are drawn from the same population, as most of the test results could not reject the null hypothesis at the 0.05 levels of significance. The results from the correlation coefficients have further confirmed the dominance of scale in determining the technical efficiency of Malaysian Islamic banks. The results also suggest that profitability is significantly and positively correlated to all efficiency measures. Research limitations/implications – The paper can be extended to consider the production approach along with the intermediation approach, which has been applied in this paper. Investigation of changes in productivity over time as a result of technical change or technological progress or regress by employing the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index could yet be another extension to the paper. Originality/value – This paper provides new evidence on the relative efficiency of domestic and foreign banks, which offer Islamic banking services.
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