5.Analyze the Selection to Come to an Understanding of It
6.Complete the "Language in Action" Activity to Discover the Far-Reaching Connections between the Selection and Language in the Real World
Practice Reading, Annotating, and Analyzing
What's in a Name? / Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Reading as A Writer
2.Writing in College and Beyond
Developing an Effective Writing Process
1.Understand Your Assignment
2.Find a Subject and Topic
4.Formulate a Thesis
5.Support Your Thesis with Evidence
6.Determine Your Organization
7.Write Your First Draft
9.Edit and Proofread
Contents note continued: 10.Sample Student Essay Using Writing Process
The "Negro Revolt" in Me / Rebekah Sandlin
3.Writing with Sources
What does it Mean to write with Sources?
Write with Sources
Learn to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote from your Sources
Integrate Borrowed Material into your Text
A Sample Student Essay Using Library and Internet Sources
The "Official English" Movement: Can America Proscribe Language with a Clear Conscience? / Jake Jamieson
4.Understanding the Power of Language: How we Find our Voices
Coming to an Awareness of Language / Malcolm X
"I saw that the best thing I could do was get hold of a dictionary
-to study, to learn some words"
The Day Language Came into My Life / Helen Keller
The celebrated deaf and blind writer recalls her discovery of language
Superman and Me / Sherman Alexie
Contents note continued: "I read with equal parts joy and desperation. I loved those books, but I also knew that love had only one purpose. I was trying to save my life"
Writing to Change the World / Mary Pipher
"All writing is designed to change the world, at least a small part of the world, or in some small way, perhaps a change in a reader's mood or in his or her appreciation of a certain kind of beauty"
You Can Keep Quiet, You Can Emigrate, or You Can Stay Here and Fight / Emily Parker
As Russian activists and bloggers take to the Web, their lives and families are threatened by the government they criticize
Letter from Birmingham Jail / Martin Luther King Jr.
"For years now I have heard the word `Wait!' It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This `Wait' has almost always meant `Never.' We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that `justice too long delayed is justice denied.'"
Contents note continued: 5.Language Essentials: Making Sense of Words in the World
Language and Thought / Susanne K. Langer
"Language is the highest and most amazing achievement of the symbolistic human mind. The power it bestows is almost inestimable, for without it anything properly called `thought' is impossible"
Words Don't Mean What They Mean / Steven Pinker
"Words let us say the things we want to say and also things we would be better off not having said"
Word Power for Babies / Melissa Fay Greene
A journalist and writer looks at the effects of the "word shortage" that low-income children experience and examines an innovative program devised to close the word gap
Chunking / Ben Zimmer
"In recent decades, the study of language acquisition and instruction has increasingly focused on `chunking': how children learn language not so much on a word-by-word basis but in larger `lexical chunks' or meaningful strings of words that are committed to memory"
Contents note continued: Our Language Prejudices Don't Make No Sense / Raffaella Zanuttini
"There is no single recipe for English; rather, there are a number of recipes"
Lost in Translation / Lera Boroditsky
A Stanford University linguist sheds new light on the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: "Do the languages we speak shape the way we think? Do they merely express thoughts, or do the structures in languages (without our knowledge or consent) shape the very thoughts we wish to express?"
6.Language Communities: Where do we Belong?
Speech Communities / Paul Roberts
Roberts defines and exemplifies both real and imagined speech communities, noting that how we speak says as much about us as what we say
All-American Dialects / Richard Lederer
"Each language is a great pie. Each slice of that pie is a dialect, and no single slice is the language. Do not try to change your language into the kind of English that nobody speaks. Be proud of your slice of the pie"
Contents note continued: Losing the Language of Silence / Lou Ann Walker
"What is it about sign language that makes people want to fight for it?"
Two Ways to Belong in America / Bharati Mukherjee
In recounting a disagreement with her sister over the merits of citizenship, this Indian American writer comes to an insightful conclusion: "The price that the immigrant willingly pays, and that the exile avoids, is the trauma of self-transformation"
Mother Tongue / Amy Tan
"I spend a great deal of my time thinking about the power of language
-the way it can evoke an emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or a simple truth. Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all
-all the Englishes I grew up with"
Talk the Talk / Eric C. Miller
The author explores the history of the English-only movement and argues against an official language: "Language is an organic force, and difficult to control"
7.Writers on Writing: How and why we Write
Contents note continued: Reading to Write / Stephen King
"If you want to be a writer, you must do two things above all others: Read a lot and write a lot. There's no way around these two things that I'm aware of, no short cut"
Write Till You Drop / Annie Dillard
"Write as if you were dying. At the same time, assume you write for an audience consisting solely of terminal patients. That is, after all, the case"
Good Writing / Steven Pinker
"Savoring good prose is not just a more effective way to develop a writerly ear than obeying a set of commandments; it's a more inviting one"
Shitty First Drafts / Anne Lamott
"For me and most of the other writers I know, writing is not rapturous. In fact, the only way I can get anything written at all is to write really, really shitty first drafts"
The Maker's Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts / Donald M. Murray
Like most good writers, Murray knows that writing is rewriting
Simplicity / William Zinsser
Contents note continued: "If you find that writing is hard, it's because it is hard"
On Not Writing / Bill Hayes
A professional writer discusses his experience with writer's block and the need for creative rest
8.Language that Manipulates: Politics, Propaganda, and Doublespeak
Propaganda: How Not to Be Bamboozled / Donna Woolfolk Cross
"If we are to continue to be a government `by the people,' let us become informed about the methods and purposes of propaganda, so we can be the masters, not the slaves of our destiny"
Selection, Slanting, and Charged Language / Genevieve B. Birk
These scholars show how language can be manipulated to create particular impressions
The Lost Art of the Unsent Angry Letter / Maria Konnikova
"We have more avenues to express immediate displeasure than ever before, and may thus find ourselves more likely to hit send or tweet when we would have done better to hit save or delete"
The World of Doublespeak / William Lutz
Contents note continued: An English professor exposes the disguises of doublespeak, "language which pretends to communicate but doesn't"
Language That Silences / Jason Stanley
"Words are misappropriated and meanings twisted. I believe that these tactics are not really about making substantive claims, but rather play the role of silencing. They are, if you will, linguistic strategies for stealing the voices of others"
Assassination and the American Language / Elliot Ackerman
A former CIA and military officer struggles with the contradictions inherent in the language of clandestine military actions, where "assassination" is prohibited but "targeted killings" still occur
9.Language that Changed the World: Words that Made A Difference
I Have a Dream / Martin Luther King Jr.
The great civil rights leader gives voice to his dream of freedom and equality, "a dream deeply rooted in the American dream"
Inaugural Address / John F. Kennedy
Contents note continued: "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty"
Address at the Youth Takeover of the United Nations / Malala Yousafzai
"Dear friends, on 9 October 2012, the Taliban shot me on the left side of my forehead. They shot my friends, too. They thought that the bullets would silence us, but they failed. And out of that silence came thousands of voices"
When Language Dies: 1993 Nobel Prize for Literature Lecture / Toni Morrison
"We die. That may be the meaning of life. But we do language. That may be the measure of our lives"
The Perils of Indifference / Elie Wiesel
"In a way, to be indifferent to that suffering is what makes the human being inhuman. Indifference, after all, is more dangerous than anger or hatred"
A Modest Proposal / Jonathan Swift
Contents note continued: This well-known satirical essay clearly outlines a plan to end hunger in eighteenth-century Ireland
10.The Language of Discrimination: Hate, Prejudice, and Stereotypes
What's So Bad about Hate? / Andrew Sullivan
Legislating against hate crimes has become more and more common in the past decades. But, what does hate mean in this context, and can legislation really be effective?
The Language of Prejudice / Gordon Allport
What causes prejudice? This famous psychologist points to the workings of language for the answer
The "F Word," / Firoozeh Dumas
An Iranian immigrant recounts the prejudice she witnessed and the difficulties she had as a child, a student, and a job-seeking college graduate with an "identifiably `ethnic' name"
Why We Need to Tolerate Hate / Wendy Kaminer
Contents note continued: "People harbor biases; they always have and always will, and their right to believe in the inferiority or sinfulness of particular groups is the same as your right to believe in equality"
Twitter, Hate Speech, and the Costs of Keeping Quiet / Greg Lukianoff
"The idea that society achieves something positive by mandating that people with bad opinions must hide them, or discuss them only in forums of the like-minded, is not only extraordinarily naive, it can be dangerous. Bigots driven into echo chambers may only become more extreme"
An essayist and editor analyzes the differences in language in reports of violence, unearthing the ways that words like "rioter" and "looter" become racially coded in the media
What's Really Going on with the Word "Thug"
-And Why I'm Not Ready to Let It Go / Maisha Z. Johnson
Contents note continued: "Attitudes that villainize people of color, people defying gender norms, and poor people are the same ones that target us for discrimination, violence, and incarceration. And they're the same attitudes that can add racist undertones to the word `thug'"
11.The Language of Conflict: Argument, Apology, and Dignity
Sorry, Regrets, and More / Edwin Battistella
This linguistics expert dissects variations of the apology and looks at how the language of an apology shapes its reception
-and its sincerity
Dignity / Donna Hicks
"When we are ignorant of the effects that our behavior has on others, and if our culture perpetuates and enables that ignorance, we will unknowingly do harm to one another"
The Dork Police: Further Adventures of Flex Cop / Michael Gardner
Contents note continued: A veteran Cincinnati police sergeant describes the innovative verbal and visual tactics he used to defuse tense confrontations with citizens: "We experimented daily with ways of startling subjects into confusion in order to interrupt their dangerous mental patterns and provide a space for something more [ect.]
Regretlessly Yours: The No-Fault Apology / Rick Reilly
This Mad-Libs-style spoof of a standard "athletic apology" offers an irreverent look at the way major sports figures frame their offenses and attempt to excuse their bad behavior
Tarring Opponents as Extremists Really Can Work / Emily Badger
An urban policy journalist exposes how labelling people as members of a group can influence our perception of them
-and how those labels are exploited by politicians and policymakers to advance agendas
Letting Go / Amy Westervelt
Contents note continued: "It was a moment I'd read about
-this sudden shift when the need to forgive outweighs the drive for revenge"
12.Language and Gender: Power, Abuse, Equality
The Careless Language of Sexual Violence / Roxane Gay
"When we're talking about race or religion or politics, it is often said we need to speak carefully. These are difficult topics where we need to be vigilant not only in what we say but how we express ourselves. That same care, I would suggest, has to be extended to how we write about violence, and sexual violence in [ect.]
Happy Feminist / Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Contents note continued: A Nigerian writer discusses our society's discomfort in talking about gender issues and the need to reclaim terms like feminist: "Gender is not an easy conversation to have. It makes people uncomfortable, sometimes even irritable. Both men and women are resistant to talk about gender, or are quick to dismiss the problems of gender. Because thinking of changing the status quo is always [ect.]
The Social Harms of "Bitch," / A. Corey Frost
The authors examine what motivates women to adopt the epithet "bitch" and argue that the term is not harmless
II Words You Need to Teach Your Son Before He Turns 6 / Joanna Schroeder
"As a parent, and someone who pays close attention to social issues around gender, I think it's crucial that we make a conscious choice to arm all of our kids with words that can give them important social skills or the ability to describe feelings"
"Bros Before Hos": The Guy Code / Michael Kimmel
Contents note continued: What does it mean to be a man today? A leading authority on men and masculinity describes the code and explores how language both reinforces it and discourages anyone from denying its demands
The Internet Talks Like a Woman / Ben Crair
This writer and editor analyzes research into how men and women use language online and finds that men tend to adopt women's communication styles rather than preserving their own offline habits
13.Current Language Controversies
How DoesTechnology ImpactCommunication in Relationships?
The Tethered Self: Technology Reinvents Intimacy and Solitude / Sherry Turkle
"Technology is the architect of our intimacies, but this means that as we text, Twitter, e-mail, and spend time on Facebook, technology is not just doing things for us, but to us, changing the way we view ourselves and our relationships"
Keep Your Thumbs Still When I'm Talking to You / David Carr
Contents note continued: "Add one more achievement to the digital revolution: It has made it fashionable to be rude"
Lost in Translation / Alison J. Stein
A journalist extols the virtues of face-to-face communication over e-mail when it comes to communicating about sensitive issues
How Does Language Work in Advertising?
The Hard Sell: Advertising in America / Bill Bryson
This journalist provides an entertaining behind-the-scenes look at the language involved in some of America's most successful advertising campaigns
Weasel Words: The Art of Saying Nothing at All / William Lutz
Words in advertisements often appear to be making a claim about a product's effectiveness or excellence when in fact they are not making a claim at all
The Creepy Language Tricks Taco Bell Uses to Fool People into Eating There / Kiera Butler
An editor teams up with a professor to analyze the hidden claims and associations in fast-food and upscale restaurant menus
Contents note continued: Is the "Natural" Label 100 Percent Misleading? / Deena Shanker
"`Natural' currently means something different to every consumer. And, if that's really the case, how can it mean anything at all?"
Why Do We Lie?
The Truth about Lying / Judith Viorst
A classification of different kinds of lies and a look at situations that seem to justify
-or even necessitate
Learning to Lie / Po Bronson
"Although we think of truthfulness as a young child's paramount virtue, it turns out that lying is the more advanced skill. A child who is going to lie must recognize the truth, intellectually conceive of an alternate reality, and be able to convincingly sell that new reality to someone else"
Is Lying Bad for Us? / Richard Gunderman
"It has been estimated that the average American tells 11 lies per week. Is this bad for us?"
Psychology of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things / Alix Spiegel
Contents note continued: This visual essay examines the psychology of fraud and the motivating factors that lead people to commit and collude in wrongdoing
14.A Brief Guide to Writing A Research Paper
Establish A Realistic Schedule
Locate and Use Print and Online Sources
Conduct Keyword Searches
Use Subject Directories to Define and Develop Your Research Topic