2006, English, Article
Comparative analysis of IKONOS, SPOT, and ETM+ data for leaf area index estimation in temperate coniferous and deciduous forest stands
Soudani, Kamel; François, C.; Le Maire, G.; ...
The increasing number of sensor types for terrestrial remote sensing has necessitated supplementary efforts to evaluate and standardize data from the different available sensors. In this study, we assess the potential use of IKONOS, ETM+, and SPOT HRVIR sensors for leaf area index (LAI) estimation in forest stands. In situ measurements of LAI in 28 coniferous and deciduous stands are compared to reflectance in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave bands, and also to five spectral vegetation indices (SVIs): Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI). The three sensor types show the same predictive ability for stand LAI, with an uncertainty of about 1.0m2/m2 for LAI between 0.5 and 6.9m2/m2. For each sensor type, the strength of the empirical relationship between LAI and NDVI remains the same, regardless of the image processing level considered [digital counts, radiances using calibration coefficients for each sensor, top of atmosphere (TOA), and top of canopy (TOC) reflectances]. On the other hand, NDVIs based on radiance, TOA reflectance, and TOC reflectance, determined from IKONOS radiometric data, are systematically lower than from SPOT and ETM+ data. The offset is approximately 0.11 NDVI units for radiance and TOA reflectance-based NDVI, and approximately 0.20 NDVI units after atmospheric corrections. The same conclusions were observed using the other indices. SVIs using IKONOS data are always lower than those computed using ETM+ and SPOT data. Factors that may explain this behavior were investigated. Based on simulations using the SAIL bidirectional canopy reflectance model coupled with the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model (i.e., PROSAIL), we show that the spectral response in radiance of IKONOS sensor in the red band is the main factor explaining the differences in SVIs between IKONOS and the other two sensors. Finally, we conclude that, for bare soils or very sparse vegetation, radiometric data acquired by IKONOS, SPOT, and ETM+ are similar and may be used without any correction. For surfaces covered with dense vegetation, a negative offset of 10% of IKONOS NDVI should be considered.
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