Determinants of outpatient antibiotic consumption in Europe: bacterial resistance and drug prescribers
This paper investigates socioeconomic determinants of outpatient antibiotic consumption in Europe. Comparable data on antibiotic use measured in the defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants (DID) are currently provided by the ESAC project. Results from applied econometric estimations for panel data reveal a link between antibiotic use and the per capita income, the demographic structure of the population, the level of education and cultural aspects. Supply-side factors, such as the density of providers and their remuneration methods, are also considered. We provide the first estimate of the impact of bacterial resistance on consumption when the e?ect of other determinants is simultaneously taken into account.
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