THE CONTROL AND PLANNING OF INDU STRY IN THE SOVIET OCCUPATION ZONE IN GERMANY (1945-1949)
The essay deal with the course of economic administration from the German Central Comitees (Deutsche Zentralverwaltungen) established as a transmission medium to realize the directions of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Sowjetische Militäradministration, SMAD) to the establisment of German Economic Comitee (Deutsche Wirtschaftskommisssion, DWK) as a central economic authority in the Soviet occupation zone. German Central Comitees were organised according to the production industries, controlled by corresponding departments of economic authority SMAD, whose main aim was the arrangement of war reparations, deliveries to the Red Army and in last place the satisfying of interior German demand including the essential supply of foodstuffs and consumer goods for the population. From 1946 the production in Soviet occupation zone was controlled by the quarterly plans - their preparation and execution had to dealt with authorization disputes among Soviet occupation authorities and also among German Central Comitees and the goverments of individual countries, which resisted the centralization and strive to restore the federalism. The German United Labour Party (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschalnd, SED) was the bearer of centralization tendencies. Only in summer 1947 SMAD agreed to an establishment of stable top authority for a whole Soviet occupation zone - DWK - subordinate to it. DWK should initially be only a department for coordination the production and planning, at the beginning of 1948, while Germany headed towards dividing, its role radically changed. DWK got the power to issue rules in economic fi eld valid for the whole Soviet occupation zone and the German Central Comitees transformed into Main Comitees became its components. DWK centralized the economic functions and changed into central authority, which was authorised to control national economy in the Soviet zone by force of plan. The two years plan inspired by Czechoslovak example became the fi rst short time plan. The economic foundations of new German statehood limited by the space of Soviet occupation zone were laid.
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