In this article I intend to justify the rare use of application fees
in labor markets. I analyze a model in which there is a training or
testing period preceding a worker's effective production period.
With various commitment abilities of firms, I find that application fees
are used if and only if all future wages can be committed before a
worker applies; otherwise, no application fees will be charged. The
model is then modified to explain the positive fees in journal
submissions and college admissions.