One of the long standing issues in education development has been productive job training in rapidly changing economies. The argument has been made that vocational secondary schools are not well equipped for this task. Although vocational and academic schooling often result in similar levels of education and employment, the higher costs of the vocational schooling makes it a less attractive alternative. In the past 23 years of Bank lending for vocational education and training, there has been a clear shift away from vocational secondary schools toward various forms of training, outside the formal education system. Although investment has been shifting into nonformal training, secondary education is in need of new directions. Diversified secondary schools have not provided that direction, leaving questions about how secondary schools might meet social objectives cost effectively.
Tertiary Education,Teaching and Learning,Gender and Education,Primary Education,Curriculum&Instruction
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