"De Walque studies the long-term impact of genocide during the period of the Khmer Rouge (1975¡79) in Cambodia and contributes to the literature on the economic analysis of conflict. Using mortality data for siblings from the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey in 2000, he shows that excess mortality was extremely high and heavily concentrated during 1974¡80. Adult males had been the most likely to die, indicating that violent death played a major role. Individuals with an urban or educated background were more likely to die. Infant mortality was also at very high levels during the period, and disability rates from landmines or other weapons were high for males who, given their birth cohort, were exposed to this risk. The very high and selective mortality had a major impact on the population structure of Cambodia. Fertility and marriage rates were very low under the Khmer Rouge but rebounded immediately after the regime's collapse. Because of the shortage of eligible males, the age and education differences between partners tended to decline. The period had a lasting impact on the educational attainment of the population. The education system collapsed during the period, so individuals--especially males--who were of schooling age during this interval had a lower educational attainment than the preceding and subsequent birth cohorts. This paper--a product of the Public Services Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to understand the consequences of conflict"--World Bank web site.