A CGE framework to evaluate policy options for reducing air pollution emissions in Chile
O'Ryan, Ra l
de Miguel, Carlos J.
Successful economic growth in Chile based on open market and export strategy, is characterized by a high dependence on natural resources, and by polluting production and consumption patterns. There is an increasing concern about the need to make potentially significant trade-offs between economic growth and environmental improvements. Additionally, policy makers have been reluctant to impose standards that could have regressive consequences, making the poor poorer. Using the CGE model ECOGEM-Chile we study the direct and indirect effects of imposing environmental taxes in Chile for PM-10 as well as taxes on fuels. We analyze the effects over macroeconomic variables as well as sectoral, distributive, and environmental variables. The results show that the most significant impacts are on emissions and sectoral outputs. There are winners and losers. Macroeconomic and distributional impacts are low when low emission reductions are required, however they can be significant if a 50% reduction in emissions are imposed.
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