Perceptions related to student learning have altered. Independent learning has become the focus, encouraging today’s learners to think critically, laterally and creatively. The change is inevitable, but how do we monitor and record such changes? Crucial to the advancement in education and its pedagogy, is the understanding that all learning is dependent on a number of factors, the most important being the willingness of the student to learn and the practices of the classroom teacher. An important element of any research conducted in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of classroom practice and learning is observation. For this research, a two-month study was undertaken, using a case study class from an inner city private boy’s school. Lessons were observed and videotaped in order to provide the researcher with an authentic view of what went on in the classroom. The key research questions were: 1. How do the students and the teacher perceive and act out their roles within a classroom, attempting to develop learner awareness? 2. How does assessment feedback manifest within the classroom learning dynamic and contribute to student learning? 3. Can an extended ethnographic observation of a one semester-length class contribute to knowledge about teaching, learning and formative assessment? Assessment for learning is a recommended element in teaching, given that the intention of any practitioner is to enhance student learning. It is difficult to know if the intended learning is taking place in any given classroom. We can assume that students are learning if the output of information meets the expectation of the teacher in concurrence with the teaching (input). The assessment undertaken should identify the level of student understanding and learning however; this depends on the individual teacher and their objectives as an educator. Some learning cannot be seen. The ability to think critically or understand concepts is not easily measured or monitored. In order to identify such ambiguous learning, various forms of analysis must take place. Participatory observation although passive, provides an opportunity to evaluate the relationship and dynamics, which exist between teacher and student. Different strategies were used to enhance student learning by the subject teacher, imparting his own philosophies on teaching and placing importance on the use of criteria sheets and note taking. Whilst the information gathered in the classroom was used to meet curriculum and reporting requirements, the ultimate intention of this teacher in his lessons was to ensure that the students took responsibility for their own learning, hence assisting them in meeting their own goals. The results of this study were reported as interpretations of the data, which emerged from the classroom lessons observed. The findings focused on the relationship between the teacher, students and learning. The value in videotaping classes was established and is recommended for use in the reflection process. The opportunity to discuss and share ideas, emanating from the classroom with colleagues in a casual and supportive manner is encouraged. Feedback is an essential component of learning. The purpose of this study is to build on current research in the area of formative assessment, improve classroom practice and revisit the intended purpose of formative assessment.