Asian trade barriers against primary and processed commodities
Many developing countries are being encouraged to shift toward increased processing and exports of domestically produced natural resource based products now exported in primary form. But in many major markets, the structure of tariffs and nontariff barriers militate against such efforts. Zero or low tariffs are generally applied to industrial countries'imports of primary (unprocessed) commodities; duties increase, or"escalate", as the level of processing or fabrication increases. Tariff escalation produces a trade bias against processed goods. In the past, such trade barrier escalation has been attributed chiefly to industrial countries. The authors examined the structure of restrictions in Asian countries and found that most Asian countries'tariffs incorporated more escalation than do tariffs in industrial countries. Apparently tariff escalation is often reinforced by nontariff barriers on processed goods, although supporting data for this finding are less firm. This issue should be viewed as a North-South issue, contend the authors. A bias against imports of processed goods is built into trade barrier escalation among Asian countries and should be addressed in regional initiatives to liberalize intra-Asian trade barriers. The authors make three recommendations for dealing with escalation issues in multilateral negotiations: Japan, and to a lesser extent, the Republic of Korea are the keys to successful negotiations on these issues, as they have a far greater import bias against processed commodities than do all other countries with which the authors compare them. That is, Japanese and Korean trade barriers incorporate far more escalation than do trade barriers in other countries studied. Disproportionately high cuts in trade barriers for unprocessed commodities are not the solution, as they would increase effective protection for processed goodss. Any approach to trade liberalization should deal with both tariffs and nontariff barriers, to ensure that a reduction in one type of restriction is not offset by a further tightening in the other. Several Asian countries apply both types of restrictions to commodity imports.
TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT,Environmental Economics&Policies,Transport and Trade Logistics,Common Carriers Industry,Trade Policy
In order to set up a list of libraries that you have access to,
you must first login
or sign up.
Then set up a personal list of libraries from your profile page by
clicking on your user name at the top right of any screen.