We estimate the impact of global merchandise trade distortions and services regulations on agricultural value added in various countries. Using the latest versions of the GTAP database and the GTAP-AGR model of the global economy, our results suggest real net farm incomes would rise in developing countries with a move to free trade, thereby alleviating rural poverty—despite a terms of trade deterioration for some developing countries that are net food importers or are enjoying preferential access to agricultural markets of high-income countries. We also show, for several large developing countries, the contribution of their own versus other countries’ trade policies. Kym Anderson and Ernesto Valenzuela The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com An earlier version is circulated as CEPR Discussion Paper No. 5337, London, November 2005, and as World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3901, Washington DC, April 2006.