Market Access Maps: A Bilateral and Disaggregated Measure of Market Access
MAcMaps (Market Access Maps) is a bilateral and disaggregated measure of market access which has been constructed to integrate the major instruments of protection (ad valorem and specific duties, prohibitions, tariff quotas, anti-dumping duties, norms) at the most detailed level (tariff lines), as well as all discriminatory regimes. It is derived from TRAINS (UNCTAD) source files, and AMAD (the Agricultural Market Access Database results from a co-operative effort by Agriculture and AgriFood - Canada - , the EU Commission - Agriculture Direction-, the FAO, the OECD, the World Bank, the UNCTAD, and the United States Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service) databases, and integrating notifications obtained from member countries of the WTO regarding their anti-dumping regimes. Lastly these files are combined with data from the COMTRADE (UN) database. MAcMaps measures the market access for 223 exporting countries into 137 countries at the level of the tariff lines for the year 1999. It can be applied to any geographic or sectoral breakdown using a procedure that minimises the endogeneity bias while accounting for the importance of products in international trade: in MAcMaps, the protection of an importing country is weighted by the imports of the reference group this country belongs to, the grouping criteria being GDP per capita. We present four case studies: the first one is a general estimation of protectionism for 8 countries (European Union, USA, Japan, Australia, Morocco, Brazil, Switzerland and China) and 6 sectors (Cereals, Other agricultural and food products, Other primary products, Textiles and clothing, Other manufacturers, Services). The second case study is an original measurement of tariff peaks. Identifying the most protected countries is the third case study and the last one is a measurement of the importance of technical barriers and standards.
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