Trade and Technology Transfers: a Comparative Study of Turkey, India and China
This study addresses the case of three emerging countries which have followed opening up policies in different regional environments. Ten years ago, the specialization patterns of China, India and Turkey were similar but they have diverged since. Their participation in the international division of labor has far-reaching effects on their imports of high-technology. China is an assembly country for Asian firms and most of its high-tech imports consist of parts and components. Turkey's foreign trade structure reflects traditional complementarities with Europe and its technology transfers are incorporated in capital goods. India's foreign trade is geographically balanced, and its import structure conveys limited technology transfer.
China; India; Turkey; trade policy; economic integration; specialization; international production sharing; technology transfer
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