Pecuniary, Non-Pecuniary, and Downstream Research Spillovers: The Case of Canola
This paper develops an empirical framework for estimating a number of inter-firm and downstream research spillovers in the canola crop research industry. The spillovers include basic research, human capital/ knowledge (as measured through other-firm expenditures), and genetics (as measured through yields of other-firms). The model used to examine spillover effects on research productivity provides evidence that there are many positive inter-firm non-pecuniary research spillovers, which is consistent with a research clustering effect. The second model, which examines spillovers at the level of firm revenue , shows that, while private firms tend to crowd one another, public firm expenditure on basic and applied research creates a crowding-in effect for private firms. This model also shows that enhanced intellectual property rights have increased the revenues of private firms. The third model, which examines social value of each firm's output, provides evidence that downstream research spillovers remain important in this modern crop research industry.
basic research, applied research, public research expenditures, private research expenditures, biotechnology, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O3,
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