National System of Innovation: A Note on Technological Asymmetries and Catching-Up Perspectives.
The main purpose of this paper is to describe a simple model for the understanding of empirical and analytical potential achievements of the NIS approach , particularly with regards at the sources that explain different growth performances across countries. First, the paper provide a summary view of the neo-Schumpeterian approach and its main contributions on technology as an important source of asymmetries between countries, in terms of trade specialization, forging ahead, catching-up and falling behind perspectives. Second, the paper suggest the hypothesis that NIS could be considered as an useful proxy of the institutional differences and support the idea of the increasing importance of "created assets" in the explanation of growth and specialization performances. By introducing this macro-representation a comparative analysis of the "goodness" or "badness" of the NIS in terms of the main implication for specialization and economic performances, as different scenarios characterized by catching-up, falling-behind and forging ahead perspectives, could be possible. Third, throughout this discussion it is pinpointed that the interplay between NIS and performances is not linear and a deterministic conlusion cannot be drawn. It is particularly stressed that the nature of the interplay between NIS and economic performances is also shaped, among others, by the historical events related to industries ad technological strategies, the specialization pattern, the constraints imposed by trade balance conditions and the policies related to the macroeconomic setting and exchange rate stabilization policies. The last section contains a simple graphical model of the interplay between NIS, competencies and growth performances.
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