TRANSIENT AND STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS OF GRANULAR SHEAR FLOWS
The initiation and steady-state dynamics of granular shear flow are investigated experimentally in a Couette geometry with independently moveable outer and inner cylinders. The motion of particles on the top surface is analyzed using fast imaging. During steady state rotation of both cylinders at different rates, a shear band develops close to the inner cylinder for all combinations of speeds of each cylinder we investigated. Experiments on flow initiation were carried out with one of the cylinders fixed. When the inner cylinder is stopped and restarted after a lag time of seconds to minutes in the same direction, a shear band develops immediately. When the inner cylinder is restarted in the opposite direction, shear initially spans the whole material, i.e. particles far from the shear surface are moving significantly more than in steady state.
Granular matter, shear flow, flow initiation, history dependence, Couette geometry, shear band
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