FREEMAN'S K MODELS AS RESERVOIR COMPUTING ARCHITECTURES
MUSTAFA C. OZTURK
JOSE C. PRINCIPE
Walter Freeman in his classic 1975 book "Mass Activation of the Nervous System" presented a hierarchy of dynamical computational models based on studies and measurements done in real brains, which has been known as the Freeman's K model (FKM). Much more recently, liquid state machine (LSM) and echo state network (ESN) have been proposed as universal approximators in the class of functionals with exponential decaying memory. In this paper, we briefly review these models and show that the restricted K set architecture of KI and KII networks share the same properties of LSM/ESNs and is therefore one more member of the reservoir computing family. In the reservoir computing perspective, the states of the FKM are a representation space that stores in its spatio-temporal dynamics a short-term history of the input patterns. Then at any time, with a simple instantaneous read-out made up of a KI, information related to the input history can be accessed and read out. This work provides two important contributions. First, it emphasizes the need for optimal readouts, and shows how to adaptively design them. Second, it shows that the Freeman model is able to process continuous signals with temporal structure. We will provide theoretical results for the conditions on the system parameters of FKM satisfying the echo state property. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the validity of the proposed approach.
Reservoir computing, liquid state mechanics, echo state networks, Freeman K sets, universal computing machines
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