Economic downturns present serious challenges but can also be viewed as opportunities for structural reform and targeted investment in strategic areas such as broadband. This raises several questions about how governments can best accomplish these goals without displacing or disrupting private investment. What criteria or principles, for example, should be applied in assessing where to allocate resources? This paper was prepared in the context of the work programme of the Working Party on Communication Infrastructures and Services Policy. It was presented to the Committee for Information, Computer and Communications Policy (ICCP) in March 2009 which declassified the document. The report was prepared by Mr. Taylor Reynolds of the OECD’s Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry. It is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.