Padrões de Esforço Tecnológico da Indústria Brasileira: Uma Análise Setorial a Partir de Técnicas Multivariadas
The aim of this paper is to apply principal components and cluster analysis on a set of technological effort indicators calculated using the Brazilian Innovation Survey (PINTEC). Such indicators are employed in order to consider innovative effort in the broadest possible way. Thus, these indicators take into account as the R&D expenditures and graduated staff in R&D as acquisition of external technology and knowledge. The results highlight a clear contrast between two groups of sectors. The first are called “suppliers dominated” whereas the second is composed by sectors in which the innovative effort with R&D is relevant. Some peculiarities of the technical change in Brazil are emphasized to the extent that those sectors with the greatest technological opportunities present a very limited R&D-based innovative effort. This empirical evidence is explained by the nature of the technological absorption process in developing countries, which is characterized as passive and dependent on international means of technology transfer. Furthermore, sectors with the majority of the innovative expenditures in Brazil are “scale intensive”, have significant productive performance and were supported by industrial policies in the 1960’s and 1970’s.
Padrões Setoriais de Mudança Técnica, PINTEC, Análise Multivariada, Brasil
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