INOVAÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA, EFICIÊNCIA DE ESCALA E AS EXPORTAÇÕES BRASILEIRAS
João Alberto de Negri
It has an agreement on the necessity of Brazil to increase its exportations. Between economists it is also consensual that the Brazilian industry must be inserted internationally, of the point of view of its exporting performance, in those products where the firms have competitive advantages. The especially excellent question in this context is definition of which type of industry Brazil has competitive advantages, effective or potentials. The agreement on this question is not consensual between the economists. Technological innovation is one of the determinative ones of the exportations of the firms in Brazil? This article search evidences that can help to answer this question. The article measure the impact on the Brazilian exportations of an average increase in one variable that affects the propensity to the technological innovation of the firm, the schooling of workers used in the companies, and of an average increase in the scale efficiency. The empirical results of this article have information for firms and suggest that the companies who carry through technological innovation have 16% more possibilities to be exporting of that the firms that do not make innovations. The increase of 20% in the efficiency of scale of the average of the firms in the Brazilian industry, would increase in 4,2% the probability of the firm to be an exporter. Simulations taking as base the results of the model suggest that 81.6% of the increase of the resultant exportations of positive variations in the efficiency of scale and the propensity to carry through technological innovation of the firm would be resultant of the exportations of the firms that they do not export and that they would start to export. This seems to indicate that the increasing of the number of exporting Brazilian firms depends on especially excellent form of internal variable of the firm and that affect its competitiveness in the external market, as efficiency of scale and propensity to the technological innovation.
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