"This program evaluation estimates the effects on standardized test scores of graduating from the Fe y Alegria private school system in Venezuela. The authors find an Average Treatment Effect on the order of 0.1 standard deviations (approximately 16 percent of the average score), using a control group of public school students. These effects are significantly larger for households at the bottom of the distribution, and smaller for those at the top. The authors posit that the better performance of the Fe y Alegria system stems from their labor contract flexibility and decentralized administrative structure. "--World Bank web site.