The Effect of Trade Openness on Women's Welfare and Work Life
Summary This study of 134 countries analyzes whether women are generally the losers or winners of globalization. The results show that economic integration does not directly improve women's life expectancies. Women's access to primary and secondary education may improve slightly, although women's welfare does not seem to improve more than that of men. On the other hand, economic integration does influence women's professional lives. In developing countries, trade openness increases female labor force participation; in industrialized states, it decreases the share of working women. Trade openness in developed countries increases the number of women employed in the service sector, while in developing states it increases the number of women working in industrial jobs and in agriculture.
trade openness gender welfare labor market industrialized countries developing countries
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