Clark, Graeme M. (1935-)

Also known as
Clark, G. M. (1935-)
Clark, Graeme (1935-)
Clark, Graeme Milbourne, (AC, FAA, FTSE, FRS, Hon. FRCS) (1935-)
Clark, Graeme Milbourne (1935-)
Field of activity
Otolaryngologist; Neuroscientist; Speech Scientist; Bioengineer
Libraries Australia
http://nla.gov.au/anbd.aut-an35603400
NLA Persistent Identifier
http://nla.gov.au/nla.party-543026

Biographies

Graeme Clark became Professor of Otolaryngology at the University of Melbourne in 1970. From 1999 to 2004, he was promoted to Laureate Professor at the University of Melbourne. Clark was the leader of the team that developed the cochlear implant (bionic ear). The focus of his research was to enable profoundly deaf people to hear speech. His research team also developed other hearing devices, such as the electrotactile hearing aid, the "Tickle Talker". Clark's cochlear implant became a world leader in its field, assisted in its development by Cochlear Ltd, and his team continued to engage in ground-breaking research into deafness for many years. In 2005, he was appointed Laureate Professor Emeritus at the University of Melbourne, and in 2014 became Honorary Professor of Electrical Engineering.

Temporal coding is essential for perception of low pitches and voicing; Place coding is essential for perception of timbre, vowels and consonants; Place coding of frequency requires early exposure to sound; Place coding is necessary for speech perception; Separate brain channels are required for temporal and place coding; Averaging over site of stimulation varies place pitch. Electrical charge is essential for coding loudness.

Place coding is essential for frequency transitions in speech; Electrical excitation of the brain underlies the conscious experience of speech; Formant codes are important for understanding running speech; Speech coding is retained in memory after exposure to sound; Speech coding in a young child leads to good spoken language; Voicing integrates timing of place coded information for conscious experience of speech; Electrical excitation, and synapse connectivity and/or protein changes are suggested to underlie memory for speech sounds.

Clark's first scientific achievement in the development of the bionic ear was in 1967. He demonstrated with neurophysiological studies the limitations of the temporal (rate) coding of electrical stimulation, and the need for stimulating different sites in the brain corresponding to a range of speech frequencies (place coding). He discovered in 1975 the best method of placing electrodes in the cochlea for safe and effective place coding.

Working with his engineers, he created the first prototype fully implantable multi-channel cochlear implant. In addition, as senior surgeon he led the surgical implantation of this prototype receiver-stimulator at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital on 1 August 1978.

Then working closely with PhD student Joe Tong, he became the first to explore the range of percepts from multi-channel electrical stimulation. This showed that the brain coded rate and place of stimulation through separate channels, and that a rapid shift in place coding could code consonants, which was essential for speech understanding.

His major breakthrough came when he realised that stimulating different sites in the brain affected not only the timbre or quality of the pitch, but also the perception of vowels. As a result - and together with colleagues - he showed how to code speech for its understanding. This made his work the first to bring electronic technology into a functional relation with the central nervous system. He then helped initiate - with funding from the federal government - the biomedical firm Cochlear Pty Ltd, which became the leader in this field for more than 30 years.

After appropriate safety studies in 1985, Clark became the first to insert a multi-channel implant in a child. His clinical team found that when profoundly deaf children were implanted as young as one year of age they could develop near-normal spoken language. In 1989, he was also the first to combine hearing in one ear with an implant in the other, and in 1990 successfully investigated implants in both ears.

He continued multi-disciplinary research to improve the performance of the bionic ear, and created the discipline Medial Bionics. This has formed the basis for bionic stimulation of the spinal cord in paraplegia, stimulating the eye for blindness, deep brain stimulation for drug resistant epilepsy and other bionic devices.

  • Career position - Appointed Junior Resident Medical Officer at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney.
  • Career position - Appointed Senior Resident Medical Officer at the Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney.
  • Career position - Appointed Lecturer in Anatomy at the University of Sydney.
  • Career position - Appointed Registrar in General Surgery (Neurosurgery) and Otolaryngology at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney.
  • Career position - Appointed Senior House Surgeon at the Royal National Ear Nose and Throat Hospital, London.
  • Career position - Appointed Senior Registrar in Otolaryngology at the Bristol General Hospital, and Lecture in Otolaryngology at Bristol University.
  • Career position - Senior Assistant Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgeon at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
  • Career position - First Assistant to the Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgeon at the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne.
  • Career position - Appointed Senior Visiting Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgeon at the Repatriation General Hospital, Heidelberg.
  • Career position - Senior Honorary Ear Nose and Throat and Head and Neck Surgeon at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
  • Career position - Lecturer in Physiology at the University of Sydney.
  • Research - MS (Sydney) awarded for thesis entitled 'the Principles of the Structural Support of the Nose and their Application to Nasal and Septal Surgery'.
  • Career position - Appointed Consultant Otolaryngologist to Royal Melbourne, the Royal Women's, the Alfred and Prince Henry's hospitals.
  • Career position - Consultant Otolaryngologist at the Commonwealth Acoustic Laboratories.
  • Career position - Appointed Senior Research Officer at the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.
  • Research - PhD (Sydney) awarded for thesis entitled "Middle ear and neural mechanisms in hearing and in the management of deafness".
  • Award - Bertha Sudholz Prize received from the University of Adelaide.
  • Career position - William Gibson Professor of Otolaryngology and Chairman, Department of Otolaryngology at the University of Melbourne.
  • Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Improvements in Prosthesis - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick, I. Forster, Y. Tong and R. Black.
  • Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Improved Electrode Array - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick and Q. Bailey.
  • Patent - Improvements to Speech Processor - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick, J. Millar, P. Seligman and Y. Tong.
  • Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Receiver/Stimulator - awarded to H. McDermott, P. Blamey, R. Black, G. Clark, D. Money, J. Patrick, Y. Tong.
  • Award - Officer of the Order of Australia (AO).
  • Career position - Chief Investigator of National Health & Medical Research Council Program Grant: "Studies to Develop Sensory Prostheses for Deaf Children and Adults".
  • Career position - Chief Investigator of two US National Institutes of Health Grants (Improved Cochlear Implant: Psychophysics and Engineering" and An Advanced Multi-Channel Cochlear Implant for Deafness".
  • Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Prosthetic 'Flippy Tip' Electrode Array - awarded to G. Clark and H. Franz Hearing Prosthesis - Prosthetic 'Flippy Tip' Electrode Array.
  • Award - J.M. Crouch Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
  • Career position - Chief Investigator of two US National Institutes of Health Contracts (Speech processors for auditory prostheses, NIH Contract No1-DC-9-2400 and Pediatric auditory prosthesis implants NIH Contract No1-NS-7-2342).
  • Career position - Founder and Surgeon-in-charge of the Cochlear Implant Clinic at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
  • Career position - Founder and Director of the Bionic Ear Institute.
  • Award - Rotary Vocational Service Award received.
  • Award - Advance Australia Award received.
  • Career position - Director, The Australian Research Council's Special Research Centre the Human Communication Research Centre, East Melbourne, Australia.
  • Award - Doctorate of Medicine (Hon. MD) University of Sydney, Australia.
  • Award - Medal of Merit received from the Lions Clubs.
  • Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Bimodal Speech Processor - awarded to P. Blamey, G. Dooley, G. Clark, P. Seligman.
  • Award - James Cook Medal received from the Royal Society of New South Wales.
  • Patent - Curved 22-Channel Intracochlear Electrode Array - awarded to S. Xu, J. Xu, H. Seddon, F. Neilson, G. Clark, R. Shepherd.
  • Award - First Honorary Fellow, Audiological Society of Australia.
  • Career position - Founder and Director, Co-operative Research Centre for Cochlear Implant, Speech and Hearing Research, East Melbourne, Australia.
  • Award - Clunies Ross National Science and Technology Award received.
  • Patent - Multiple Pulse Per Period (MP3) Electrical Stimulation Strategy for Cochlear Implants awarded to Irlicht and G. Clark.
  • Patent - Transient Emphasis Speech Processing - awarded to A. Vandali and G. Clark.
  • Patent - Cochlear Implant System for Residual Hearing Stimulation - awarded to A. Vandali and G. Clark.
  • Patent - Cochlear Implant Devices - awarded to G. Clark, L. Cohen and P. Busby.
  • Award - Sir William Upjohn Medal, The University of Melbourne (awarded every five years for outstanding contributions to medicine).
  • Award - Doctorate of Medicine (Hon. MD), Medizinishche Hochschule, Germany.
  • Award - Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (FAA).
  • Award - Rio Tinto Science Hero's Award - Industry received.
  • Award - National Australia Day Council, Australian Achiever's Award (for pioneering research to enable the profoundly deaf to hear).
  • Award - Victoria Prize received.
  • Award - Australian Achiever Award received.
  • Career position - Laureate Professor, the University of Melbourne.
  • Award - Cavalcade of Science Honour Award received from the Australian Institute of Political Science.
  • Patent - A Travelling Wave Sound Processor - awarded to P. Blamey, H. McDermott, B. Swanston, J. Patrick and G. Clark.
  • Award - Senior Australian of the Year (for outstanding contribution to the welfare of Australians and international commitment).
  • Award - Honorary Member of the American Otological Society.
  • Award - Aram Glorig Award received from the International Society of Audiology.
  • Award - Graeme Clark Room established at the Ear Foundation, Marjorie Sherman House, Nottingham UK.
  • Award - Doctorate of Science (Hon. DSc), University of Wollongong.
  • Award - Centenary Medal.
  • Award - Honorary Fellow, Royal Society of Medicine, London.
  • Award - Doctorate of Engineering (Hon. Deng), Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan.
  • Organisation - The Graeme Clark Cochlear Scholarship Foundation established.
  • Award - Honorary Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons of England.
  • Award - Doctorate of Laws (Hon. LLD), Monash University.
  • Career position - Appointed Laureate Professor Emeritus, The University of Melbourne.
  • Award - Prime Minister's Prize for Science received.
  • Award - Fellow of the Australian Acoustical Society.
  • Award - Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).
  • Award - Companion of the Order of Australia (AC).
  • Award - Australian Father of the Year Award (for his vision, determination and pioneering work in developing the bionic ear).
  • Career position - Appointed Emeritus Otolaryngologist at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
  • Award - Excellence in Surgery Award received from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
  • Career position - Appointed Director Emeritus, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
  • Award - Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh Medal received.
  • Award - A. Charles Holland Foundation International Prize received.
  • Award - International Speech Communication Association Medal received.
  • Career position - Lead Research Scientist in establishing the State Government of Victoria's Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) program, with the aim of bringing research and industry together to produce industrial outcomes.
  • Career position - Bionics Program Leader, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science.
  • Award - Ian Wark Medal and Lecture received from the Australian Academy of Science.
  • Career position - Appointed Director Emeritus, The Bionic Ear Institute.
  • Research - Member of the Expert Advisory Committee of the Australian Research Council.
  • Award - Lifetime Achievement Award received from the Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University.
  • Award - Zülch prize received from the Getrud Reemstsma Foundation, administered by the Max Planck Society, Cologne (Köln).
  • Lecture - The Australian Broadcasting Commission's Boyer Lectures on 'Restoring the Senses' established.
  • Award - Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering.
  • Lecture - Inaugural Graeme Clark Oration, held annually at the University of Melbourne, delivered by Graeme Clark.
  • Organisation - The Graeme Clark Foundation established. It funded the Graeme Clark Chair in Audiology and Speech Science, and helped to sustain research and support into bionic ear and medical bionics generally.
  • Award - Otto Schmidt Award received from the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering.
  • Award - Honorary Bragg Membership, Royal Institute of Australia.
  • Organisation - The Graeme Clark Centre for Innovation in the Sciences, The Scots College, Sydney, established.
  • Career position - Distinguished Professor, La Trobe University (the first Distinguished Professor appointed to La Trobe University).
  • Award - Lister Medal received from the Royal College of Surgeons of England and Glasgow, Royal Society, Edinburgh University.
  • Award - Doctorate , University of Zarogoza, Spain.
  • Organisation - The Graeme Clark Research Institute, Tabor College, Adelaide, established.
  • Award - CSL Florey Medal received from the Australian Institute of Policy and Science and Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL).
  • Award - Zotterman Medal received from the Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
  • Career position - Appointed Professorial Fellow, University of Melbourne Department of Electrical Engineering, through the National Information Communications Techology Centre of Excellence (NICTA).
  • Award - Graeme Clark Room established at Cochlear Centre in Macquarie University Sydney.
  • Award - Honorary Doctor of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney.
  • Chair - The Graeme Clark Chair in Audiology and Speech Science, at the University of Melbourne, established by the Graeme Clark Foundation and the University of Melbourne.
  • Award - Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, United States.
  • Award - Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award received from the Lasker Foundation, New York.
  • Career position - Appointed Honorary Professor of Electrical Engineering, Univeristy of Melbourne.
  • Award - Graeme Clark Room established at Cochlear Care Centre, Melbourne.
  • Lecture - The Clark Lecture Series at Scots College Sydney is established.
  • Award - Fritz, J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize received from the National Academy of Engineering, Washington DC, and Ohio University.
  • Award - Medal from Paul Sabatier University.
  • Award - Life Membership of the Australasian Society of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery - awarded on 7th March 2016.
  • Lecture - Gave the Norbet Weiner Lecture (Norbet Weiner is a key figure in cybernetics which is used to develop the Bionic Ear).

View the full record at Encyclopedia of Australian Science

Related people and organisations

Encyclopedia of Australian Science

  • (Patent) 1986061140: Prosthetic Electrode Array (1986 - 1997)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for the Prosthetic Electrode Array.</p>

  • (Person) Marginson, Raymond David (1923 - )
  • (Patent) 1980059812: Speech Processor (1980 - 1998)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for the Speech Processor [1980059812].</p>

  • (Person) Millar, John Bruce

    <p>John Bruce Millar collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Patent) 1981078481: Speech Processor (1981 - 1997)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for the Speech Processor [Improvements in Speech Processors].</p>

  • (Person) McDermott, Hugh J.

    <p>Hugh McDermott collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Money, David

    <p>David Money collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Patent) 1983018194: Hearing Prosthesis (1983 - 1997)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for the Hearing Prosthesis.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Bionic Ear Institute (1983 - 2011)

    <p>Graeme Clark was the Founder and Director of the Bionic Ear Institute.</p>

  • (Person) Burkhard, Franz-Heinz Gunther

    <p>Franz-Heinz Burkhard collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Saunders, Rod

    <p>Graeme Clark conducted the cochlear implant (bionic ear) procedure for Rod Saunders.</p>

  • (Person) Cohen, Lawrence Thomas

    <p>Lawrence Cohen collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Patent) 1994070647: Cochlear Implant Devices (1994 - 2012)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for Cochlear Implant Devices.</p>

  • (Person) Irlicht, Laurence

    <p>Laurence Irlicht collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Patent) 1995036460: Multiple Pulse Stimulation (1995 - 2012)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for Multiple Pulse Stimulation.</p>

  • (Person) Pyman, Brian

    <p>Brian Pyman collaborated with Graeme Clark on surgery.</p>

  • (Person) O'Leary, Stephen John

    <p>Stephen O'Leary collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Grayden, David Bruce

    <p>David Grayden collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Patent) 1985041500: Electrotactile Vocoder (1985 - 2002)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for Electrotactile Vocoder.</p>

  • (Person) Tong, Yit Chow (Joe)

    <p>Joe Tong collaborated with Graeme Clark on psychophysics.</p>

  • (Cultural Artefact) Multi-channel Cochlear Implant (Bionic Ear) (1978 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark led the research team which developed the first prototype fully implantable multi-channel cochlear implant.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Cochlear Limited (1985 - )
  • (Corporate Body) Cochlear Pty Ltd (1983 - 1984)
  • (Corporate Body) Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne (1970 - 2013?)
  • (Corporate Body) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne (1982 - )
  • (Corporate Body) Australian Hearing, Commonwealth of Australia (1992 - )
  • (Corporate Body) National Acoustic Laboratories, Commonwealth of Australia (1974 - 1992)
  • (Person) Furness, John Barton (1945 - )

    <p>John Furness and Graeme Clark were co-authors.</p>

  • (Person) Forster, Ian C.

    <p>Ian Forster co-authored several publications with Graeme Clark on engineering.</p>

  • (Person) Dewhurst, David John (1919 - 1996)

    <p>David Dewhurst collaborated with Graeme Clark on engineering.</p>

  • (Person) Blamey, Peter J.

    <p>Peter Blamey collaborated with Graeme Clark on pyschoacoustics and spoken language development.</p>

  • (Person) Seligman, Peter M.

    <p>Peter Seligman collaborated with Graeme Clark on engineering.</p>

  • (Person) Vandali, Andrew E.

    <p>Andrew Vandali collaborated with Graeme Clark on engineering.</p>

  • (Person) Busby, Peter A.

    <p>Peter Busby collaborated with Graeme Clark on audiology.</p>

  • (Patent) 1979046563: Electrode for Human Cochlea (1979 - 1995)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for "Electrode for Human Cochlea".</p>

  • (Person) Bailey, Quentin Richard

    <p>Quentin Bailey collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Patrick, James (Jim) Finlay

    <p>Jim Patrick collaborated with Graeme Clark on engineering.</p>

  • (Patent) 2001265692: Sound Processor for a Cochlear Implant (2001 - 2015)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for Sound Processor for a Cochlear Implant.</p>

  • (Person) Black, Raymond C.

    <p>R.C. Black co-authored several publications with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Melbourne (1947 - 1982)

    <p>Graeme Clark worked with staff from the Department of Electrical Engineering.</p>

  • (Patent) 2001011164: Emphasis of Short-Duration Transient Speech Features (2000 - 2020)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for Emphasis of Short-Duration Transient Speech Features.</p>

  • (Person) Martin, Lois

    <p>Lois Martin collaborated with Graeme Clark on audiology.</p>

  • (Patent) 2000068111: Improved Sound Processor for Cochlear Implants (2000 - 2012)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for Improved Sound Processor for Cochlear Implants.</p>

  • (Person) Dawson, Pam

    <p>Pam Dawson collaborated with Graeme Clark on audiology.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (1976 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark was a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Audiological Society of Australia Inc. (1968 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark was awarded an honorary fellowship by the Audiological Society of Australia.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne (1991 - )
  • (Person) Dowell, Richard C

    <p>Richard Dowell collaborated with Graeme Clark on audiology.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Audiology, Department of Otolaryngology (1973 - )
  • (Cultural Artefact) Automatic Brain Wave Audiometer (1972 - )
  • (Cultural Artefact) Tickle Talker (c. 1985 - )
  • (Person) Rickards, Field
  • (Corporate Body) The University of Wollongong

    <p>Graeme Clark worked for 10 years with the University of Wollongong in a Centre of Excellence led by Professor Gordon Wallace, where Clark was responsible for all the bionics research. Clark was particularly involved in the development of new generation bionic ear; and, the possibility of using plastics to join up the top and bottom of damaged spinal cords to enable people to walk again. He also acted as a consultant for research into a bionic eye.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Nucleus Limited (1965 - 1988)

    <p>Graeme Clark worked with Paul Trainor and Nucleus to help commercialise the bionic ear.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) CRC for Cochlear Implant, Speech and Hearing Research (1992 - 1999)

    <p>Graeme Clark was the founding director of the CRC for Cochlear Implant, Speech and Hearing Research.</p>

  • (Person) Burkitt, Anthony Neville

    <p>Anthony Burkitt collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Shepherd, Robert Keith

    <p>Robert Shepherd collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Seldon, Henry Lee

    <p>Henry Seldon collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Xu, Jin

    <p>Jin Xu collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Webb, Robert

    <p>Robert Webb cooperated with Graeme Clark on surgery.</p>

  • (Patent) 2003229378: Generation of Electrical Stimuli for Application to a Cochlea (2003 - 2015)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a co-inventor named on the patent for Generation of Electrical Stimuli for Application to a Cochlea.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Deafness Foundation of Victoria

    <p>Graeme Clark chaired a committee to establish the Deafness Foundation of Victoria.</p>

  • (Person) Xu, Shi-Ang

    <p>Shi-Ang Xu collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Swanson, Brett Anthony

    <p>Brett Swanson collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Neilson, Frank Jens Paul

    <p>Frank Neilson collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Paolini, Antonio Giacomo

    <p>Antonio Paolini collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Clarey, Janine Catherine

    <p>Janine Clarey collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Person) Kenny, Owen Patrick

    <p>Owen Kenny collaborated with Graeme Clark.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Human Communication Research Centre, The University of Melbourne (1988 - 1993)

    <p>Graeme Clark was a director of the Human Communication Research Centre.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Cochlear Implant Clinic, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital (1985 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark was a head of unit and director of the Cochlear Implant Clinic.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Graeme Clark Foundation (2008 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark is the Chairman of the Board of the Foundation.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital (1863 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark conducted research and clinical practice at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. He was assistant and senior surgeon from 1964-1969, and his role continued on as the Professor and Head of the University Clinic there from 1970 till he retired in 2004.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) (1927 - )
  • (Corporate Body) Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne (1876 - 1991)

    <p>Graeme Clark was appointed to the Chair of Otolaryngology at University of Melbourne in 1970.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Commonwealth of Australia (1936 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark was Chief Investigator of NHMRC Program Grant: "Studies to Develop Sensory Prostheses for Deaf Children and Adults", and, Chief Investigator on 19 NHMRC Project Grants.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) Australian Academy of Science (1954 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark was a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (FAA).</p>

  • (Person) Wallace, Gordon (1958 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark and Gordon Wallace worked closely on the bionics of the intellegent polymers and the biological application of the chemistry, and, the release of nerve growth factors.</p>

  • (Person) Kapsa, Robert

    <p>Robert Kapsa and Graeme Clark worked together on the bionics, and particularly the organic chemsitry, to develop an improved bionic ear.</p>

  • (Corporate Body) La Trobe University (1964 - )

    <p>Graeme Clark was appointed the first Distinguished Professor to La Trobe University in 2009, where he studied in depth the temporal bone of his first patient, and learned more about the effects of implantation on the inner ear.</p>

Resources for Graeme M. Clark

Selected resources (77)

Encyclopedia of Australian Science

  1. Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: The University of Melbourne eScholarship Research Centre
    Series: Encyclopedia of Australian Science
  2. Aided speech recognition abilities of adults with a severe hearing loss
    Flynn, M. C., Dowell, R. C., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1998
    Series: Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 41, 285-99
  3. The multiple-channel cochlear implant: the interface between sound and the central nervous system for hearing, speech, and language in deaf people: a personal perspective
    Clark, Graeme Mibourne
    Published: 2006
    Series: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 361, 791-810
  4. Evaluation of trajectories and contact pressures for the straight nucleus cochlear implant electrode array: A two-dimensional application of finite element analysis
    Chen, B. K., Clark G. M., Jones, R.
    Published: 2003
    Series: Medical Engineering and Physics, 2, 141-7
  5. Cognitive processing in children using cochlear implants: the relationship between visual memory, attention and executive functions and developing language skills
    Surowiecki, V. N., Sarant, J. Z., Maruff, P., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Clarke, G. M.
    Published: 2002
    Series: Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 111, 119-26
  6. Psychophysics of a prototype peri-modiolar cochlear implant electrode array
    Cohen L. T., Saunders E., Clark G. M.
    Published: 2001
    Series: Hearing Research, 155, 63-81
  7. Pitch estimation by early-deafened subjects using a multiple-electrode cochlear implant
    Busby, P. A., Clark G. M.
    Published: 2000
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 547-58
  8. The development of speech perception in children using cochlear implants: Effects of etiologic factors and delayed milestones
    Pyman, B., Blamey, P., Lacy, P., Clark, G., Dowell, R.
    Published: 2000
    Series: American Journal of Otology, 21, 57-61
  9. The perception of temporal modulations by cochlear implant patients
    Busby, P. A., Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1993
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97, 124-31
  10. Speech results with a bilateral multi-channel cochlear implant subject for spatially separated signal and noise
    van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1999
    Series: Australian Journal of Audiology, 21, 23-8
  11. The multi-channel cochlear implant and the relief of severe-to-profound deafness
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: 2012
    Series: Cochlear Implants International, 13, 2, 69-85
  12. Pitch and loudness estimation for single and multiple pulse per period electric pulse rates by cochlear implant patients
    Busby, P. A., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1997
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101, 1687-95
  13. Psychophysical studies with two binaural cochlear implant subjects
    van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1997
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 102, 495-507
  14. Pitch comparisons of acoustically and electrically evoked auditory sensations
    Blamey, P. J., Dooley, G. J., Parisi, E. S., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1996
    Series: Hearing Research, 99, 139-50
  15. The perceptual dimensions of single-electrode and non-simultaneous dual-electrode stimuli in cochlear implantees
    McKay, C. M., McDermott, H. J., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1996
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 99, 1079-90
  16. Fusion and laterization study with two binaural cochlear implant patients
    van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1995
    Series: Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 104, suppl. 166, 233-5
  17. Cochlear implantation in children: labyrinthitis following pneumococcal otitis media in unimplanted and implanted cat cochleas
    Dahm, M., Clark, G. M., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Shepherd, R. K., Burton, M. J.
    Published: 1994
    Series: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 114, 620-5
  18. Interview with Professor Graeme Clark
    O'Leary, Stephen
    Published: Australian Academy of Science, 2011
    Series: Interviews with Australian scientists
  19. Speech perception as a function of electrical stimulation rate: Using the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system
    Vandali, A. E., Whitford, L. A., Plant, K. L., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 2000
    Series: Ear and Hearing, 21, 608-24
  20. Learning to understand speech with the cochlear implant
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002
    Series: Perceptual Learning, 147-60
  21. Graeme Clark: The Man Who Invented the Bionic Ear
    Worthing, Mark
    Published: Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 2015
  22. Bionic Ear Prototype
    National Museum of Australia
    Published: National Museum of Australia, 2015
  23. Bionic Ear: Fact Sheet
    Bionics Institute
    Published: Bionics Institute, 2016
  24. Science and God: Reconciling Science with the Christian Faith
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: Anzea, Surry Hills, NSW, 1979
  25. Cochlear implants: Fundamentals and Applications
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: Springer Verlag, New York, 2003
  26. Design Criteria of a Multiple-electrode Cochlear Implant Hearing Prosthesis
    Clark, G.M., Black, R.C., Forster I.C., Patrick, J.F., Tong, Y.C.
    Published: 1978
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 63, 631-633
  27. Graeme Clark's Gift to the World [blog post]
    Tully, Helen
    Published: National Film and Sound Archive of Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, 2015
    Series: NFSA Blog, National Film and Sound Archive of Australia website
  28. Meningitis after cochlear implantation
    Wei, B. Clark, G., O'Leary S., Shepherd, R. K., Robine-Browne, R.
    Published: 2007
    Series: British Medical Journal, 335, 1058
  29. Cochlear Implants
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003
    Series: Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Speech processing in the auditory system
  30. Personal reflections on the multi-channel cochlear implant and a view of the future
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: 2008
    Series: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 45, 5, 651-94
  31. Cochlear Implants: Historical Perspectives
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: Whur Publishers, London, 1995
    Series: Profound Deafness and Speech Communications
  32. Nucleus Multi-electrode Cochlear Implant (Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology)
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Blamey, Peter. J., Brown, A. M., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Franz, B. K., Pyman, B. C., Shepherd, R. K., Tong, Y. C., Webb R. L., Hirshorn, M. S., Kuzma, J. A., Mecklenburg, D. J., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M.
    Published: Basel: Karger, 1987
  33. Design criteria of a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Black, R. C., Patrick, J. F., Tong, Y. C.
    Published: IEEE Press, New York, 1980
    Series: Sensory Aids for the Hearing Impaired, 457-9
  34. The multi-channel cochlear implant: Multi-disciplinary development of electrical stimulation of the cochlea and the resulting clinical benefit
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: 2015
    Series: Hearing Research, 322, 4-13
  35. The multichannel cochlear implant for severe-to-profound hearing loss
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne
    Published: 2013
    Series: Nature Medicine, 19, 10, 1236-9
  36. The evolving science of cochlear implants
    Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Clark, J. C., Furness, J. B.,
    Published: 2013
    Series: Journal of the American Medical Association, 310, 12, 1225-6
  37. The postnatal growth of the temporal bone and its implications for cochlear implantation in children
    Dahm, M., Shepherd, R. K., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1993
    Series: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, suppl. 505, 5-39
  38. Research - Health and food - Professor Graeme Clark and his invention, the Bionic Ear, 1984
    Australian Government, National Archives of Australia
    Published: Commonwealth of Australia, National Archives of Australia, 2016
  39. [Biographical cuttings on Prof. Graeme Clark, awarded the BHP Pursuit of Excellence award, for pioneering work with people with impaired hearing, containing one or more cuttings from newspapers or journals]
  40. Pitch percepts associated with amplitude-modulated current pulse trains in cochlear implantees
    McKay, C. M., McDermott, H. J., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1994
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96, 2664-73
  41. A multiple-electrode array for a cochlear implant
    Clark G. M., Hallworth, R. J.
    Published: 1976
    Series: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 90, 623-7
  42. A cochlear implant electrode
    Clark G. M., Hallworth, R. J., Zdanius, K.
    Published: 1975
    Series: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 89, 787-92
  43. A hearing prosthesis for severe perceptive deafness ̶ experimental studies
    Clark G. M.
    Published: 1973
    Series: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 87, 10, 929-45
  44. Behavioral thresholds in the cat to frequency modulated sound and electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve
    Clark G. M., Kranz, H. G., Minas, H.
    Published: 1973
    Series: Experimental Neurology, 41, 190-200
  45. Responses of cells in the superior olivary complex of the cat to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve
    Clark G. M.
    Published: 1969
    Series: Experimental Neurology, 24, 1, 124-36
  46. Graeme Clark Collection
    Published: The University of Melbourne
    Series: Minerva Access
  47. Design criteria of a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis
    Clark, G. M., Black, R. C., Forster, I. C., Patrick, J. F., Tong, Y. C.
    Published: 1978
    Series: Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 63, 631-3
  48. Restoring the Senses
    Clark, Graeme M.
    Published: ABC Books for the Australian Broadcasting Commission, Sydney, NSW, 2007
  49. The surgery for multiple-electrode cochlear implantations
    Clark, G. M., Pyman, B. C., Bailey, Q. R.
    Published: 1979
    Series: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 93, 215-23
  50. International Cochlear Implant Speech and Hearing Symposium : Melbourne 1994
    Clark, Graeme M. and Cowan, Robert S.C.
    Published: Annals Publishing Company, St Louis, Mo, 1995
  51. The University of Melbourne-nucleus multi-electrode cochlear implant
    Clark, G. M., in collaboration with Blamey, P. J. [et al.]
    Published: Karger Basel, New York, 1987
  52. The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital
    Published: The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, 2011
  53. From the Editor
    Chung, King
    Published: 2006
    Series: Trends in Amplification, 10, 4, 173-174
  54. Middle ear and neural mechanisms in hearing and in the management of deafness [manuscript]
    Clark, Graeme M.
    Published: Sydney, 1969
  55. Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story
    Clark, Graeme M.
    Published: Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2017
  56. The Story of the Bionic Ear
    Epstein, June
    Published: Hyland House, 1989
  57. Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story
    Clark, Graeme M.
    Published: Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2000
  58. A multi-channel hearing prosthesis for profound-to-total hearing loss
    Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., Crosby, P. A., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K.
    Published: 1984
    Series: Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 8, 3-8
  59. Psychological and speech perception studies" A case report on a binaural cochlear implant subject
    van Hoesel, R., Tong, Y. C., Hollow, R. D., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1993
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 94, 3178-89
  60. Psychophysical and speech perception studies" A case report on a binaural cochlear implant subject
    Busby, P. A., Tong, Y. C., Hollow, R. D., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1992
    Series: Audiology, 31, 95-111
  61. The histopathology of the human temporal bone and auditory central nervous system following cochlear implantation in a patient: Correlation with psychophysics and speech perception results
    Clark, G. M., Shepherd, R. K., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Dowell, R. C., Tong, Y. C., Blamey, S., Webb, R. L., Pyman, B. C., McNaughton, J., Kakulas, B. A., Siejka, S.
    Published: 1988
    Series: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, suppl. 448, 1-65
  62. Preliminary results for the Cochlear Corporation multi-electrode intracochlear implants on six prelingually deaf patients
    Clark, G. M., Busby, P. A., Roberts, S. A., Dowell, R. C., Tong, Y. C., Blamey, P. J., Nienhuys, T. G. W., Mecklenburg, D. J., Well, R. J., Pyman, B. C., Franz, B. K. - H. G.,
    Published: 1987
    Series: American Journal of Otology, 8, 234-9
  63. A multiple-electrode intracochlear implant for children
    Clark, G. M., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Musgrave, G. N., Nienhuys, T. G. W., Pyman, B. C., Roberts, S. A., Tong, Y. C., Well, R. L., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M.
    Published: 1987
    Series: Archives of Otolarygology, 113, 825-8
  64. Loudness summation, masking, and temporal interaction for sensations by electric stimulation of two sites in the human cochlea
    Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1986
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 79, 1958-66
  65. A multiple-electrode cochlear implant
    Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Black, R. C., Forster, I. C., Patrick, J. F., Dewhurst, D. J.
    Published: 1977
    Series: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 91, 935-45
  66. Comparison of two cochlear implant speech-processing strategies
    Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Dowell, R. C.
    Published: 1984
    Series: Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 93, 127-31
  67. Clinical results with a multi-channel pseudobulbar system
    Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Dowell, R. C.
    Published: 1983
    Series: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 405, 370-7
  68. The preliminary clinical trial of a multi-channel cochlear implant hearing prosthesis
    Clark, G. M., Crosby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., Tong, Y. C.
    Published: 1983
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 74, 1977-14
  69. Psychological studies for two multiple-channel cochlear implant patients
    Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C.
    Published: 1982
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71, 153-60
  70. A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using closed-set spondiac words
    Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F.
    Published: 1981
    Series: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 95, 461-4
  71. A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using an open-set word test
    Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F., Busby, P. A.
    Published: 1981
    Series: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 91, 173-5
  72. A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using nonsense syllables
    Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F. A., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Seldon, H. L., Patrick, J. F.
    Published: 1981
    Series: Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 90, 227-30
  73. Speech processing for a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis
    Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., Seligman, P. M., Patrick, J. F.
    Published: 1980
    Series: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 68, 1897-9
  74. A cochlear implant round window electrode array
    Clark, G. M., Patrick, J. F., Bailey, Q. R.
    Published: 1979
    Series: Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 93, 107-9
  75. Banded intracochlear electrode array: Evaluation of insertion trauma in human temporal bones
    Shepherd, R. K., Clark, G. M., Pyman, B. C., Webb, R. L.
    Published: 1985
    Series: Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 94, 55-9
  76. The Nucleus 22 - Channel Cochlear Implant System
    Patrick, J. F. and Clark, G. M.
    Published: 1991
    Series: Ear Hear, 12, 4, 3S-9S
  77. The Cochlear Story
    Bondarew, Veronica and Seligman, Peter
    Published: CSIRO, Canberra, 2012

Resources by Graeme M. Clark (23)

  1. Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story / Graeme Clark
    Clark, Graeme
    [ Book, Audio book : 1900-2017 ]
    Languages: English;lis;Undetermined, [2 others]
    At 71 libraries
    Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story / Graeme Clark
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 47.888)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 47.888)

  2. Papers of Graeme M. Clark
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Unpublished : 1944-2012 ]
    At National Library
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 15.697)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 15.697)

  3. Ijen tŭrŭl su issŏyo : chʻŏnggak changaein ege sori ŭi segye rŭl yŏrŏ chun kwahakcha Gŭrem Kʻŭllakʻŭ ŭi chasŏjŏn = Sounds from silence / Sŏ Kye-sun omgim
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Book : 2002 ]
    Languages: Korean
    At State Library of NSW
    Ijen tŭrŭl su issŏyo : chʻŏnggak changaein ege sori ŭi segye rŭl yŏrŏ chun kwahakcha Gŭrem Kʻŭllakʻŭ ŭi chasŏjŏn = Sounds from silence / Sŏ Kye-sun omgim
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.64)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.64)

  4. Interview with Prof. Graeme Clark, Director of Bionic Ear Institute and Laureate Professor of Otolaryngology / interviewer, Diana Giese
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Sound : 2002 ]
    At National Library
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.281)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.281)

  5. Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story / by Graeme Clark
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Audio book, Sound : 2002 ]
    At Toowoomba City
    Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story / by Graeme Clark
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 12.756)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 12.756)

  6. Restoring the senses / Graeme Clark
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Book : 2007 ]
    At 33 libraries
    Restoring the senses / Graeme Clark
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 10.045)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 10.045)

  7. Cochlear implants : fundamentals and applications / Graeme Clark
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Book : 2003 ]
    Possibly online
    At 16 libraries
    Cochlear implants : fundamentals and applications / Graeme Clark
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 8.282)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 8.282)

  8. George Negus Tonight
    ABC-TV (Australia)
    [ Video : 2004-2015 ]
    Possibly online
    At LaTrobe Uni Melb
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 8.016)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 8.016)

  9. The University of Melbourne-nucleus multi-electrode cochlear implant / G.M. Clark ; in collaboration with P.J. Blamey ... [et al.]
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Book : 1987 ]
    At 10 libraries
    The University of Melbourne-nucleus multi-electrode cochlear implant / G.M. Clark ; in collaboration with P.J. Blamey ... [et al.]
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 7.778)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 7.778)

  10. Cochlear implantation for infants and children : advances / senior editor, Graeme M. Clark ; editors, Robert S.C. Cowan, Richard C. Dowell
    Clark, editor, Graeme
    [ Article : 1997 ]
    At 12 libraries
    Cochlear implantation for infants and children : advances / senior editor, Graeme M. Clark ; editors, Robert S.C. Cowan, Richard C. Dowell
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 7.248)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 7.248)

More...

Resources about Graeme M. Clark (14)

  1. Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story / Graeme Clark
    Clark, Graeme
    [ Book, Audio book : 1900-2017 ]
    Languages: English;lis;Undetermined, [2 others]
    At 71 libraries
    Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story / Graeme Clark
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 47.763)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 47.763)

  2. Papers of Graeme M. Clark
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Unpublished : 1944-2012 ]
    At National Library
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 15.728)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 15.728)

  3. Professor Graeme M. Clark (University of Melbourne / Bionic Ear Institute)
    Bionic Ear Institute (Australia)
    [ Periodical, Archived website : 2004-2017 ]
    View online
    At 3 libraries
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 14.211)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 14.211)

  4. Ijen tŭrŭl su issŏyo : chʻŏnggak changaein ege sori ŭi segye rŭl yŏrŏ chun kwahakcha Gŭrem Kʻŭllakʻŭ ŭi chasŏjŏn = Sounds from silence / Sŏ Kye-sun omgim
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Book : 2002 ]
    Languages: Korean
    At State Library of NSW
    Ijen tŭrŭl su issŏyo : chʻŏnggak changaein ege sori ŭi segye rŭl yŏrŏ chun kwahakcha Gŭrem Kʻŭllakʻŭ ŭi chasŏjŏn = Sounds from silence / Sŏ Kye-sun omgim
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.643)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.643)

  5. Professor Graeme M. Clark (University of Melbourne / Bionic Ear Institute)
    Bionic Ear Institute (Australia)
    [ Periodical, Archived website : 2004-2017 ]
    View online
    At 3 libraries
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.545)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.545)

  6. Interview with Prof. Graeme Clark, Director of Bionic Ear Institute and Laureate Professor of Otolaryngology / interviewer, Diana Giese
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Sound : 2002 ]
    At National Library
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.319)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 13.319)

  7. Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story / by Graeme Clark
    Clark, Graeme M., 1935-
    [ Audio book, Sound : 2002 ]
    At Toowoomba City
    Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story / by Graeme Clark
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 12.776)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 12.776)

  8. Graeme Clark : portrait sitter file
    Clark, Graeme
    [ Book ]
    At Nat Portrait Gall
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 9.721)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 9.721)

  9. Professor Graeme Clark / Peter Wegner
    Wegner, Peter, 1953-
    [ Art work : 2000 ]
    View online
    At State Library VIC
    Professor Graeme Clark / Peter Wegner
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 8.781)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 8.781)

  10. Medical practitioners / Robert Gott
    Gott, Robert
    [ Book : 1998 ]
    At 49 libraries
    Medical practitioners / Robert Gott
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 8.445)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 8.445)

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  1. Website: Professor Graeme M. Clark (University of Melbourne / Bionic Ear Institute)
    www.bionicear.org
    Matching pages:
    • Mites fight back - 12/2/2008
    • ...Professor Graeme M. Clark (University of Melbourne / Bionic Ear Institute)......www.bionicear.org/news/Clark_Media_kit_final1.pdf...
    View 356 matching archived pages
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.081)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.081)

  2. Website: Sydney Morning Herald (July 2015)
    m.smh.com.au
    Matching pages:
    • Bionic ear inventor Graeme Clark 'excite... - 27/7/2015
    • ...m.smh.com.au/technology/sci-tech/bionic-ear-inventor-graeme-clark-excited-about-new-project......m.smh.com.au/technology/sci-tech/bionic-ear-inventor-graeme-clark-excited-about-new-project...
    View 2 matching archived pages
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.036)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.036)

  3. Website: Gilbert & Sullivan Society of Victoria, established 1935
    www.gilbertandsullivan.org.au
    Matching pages:
    View 204 matching archived pages
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.036)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.036)

  1. University of Melbourne Department of Otolaryngology
    University Department
    ... Clark, Graeme Milbourne (1935 - ) ... Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital building for the new Department. Graeme Clark became William Gibson Professor ...
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.126)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.126)

  2. University of Melbourne Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (1982-)
    ... Clark, Graeme Milbourne (1935 - ) ...
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.036)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.036)

  3. Australian Hearing Services (1992-)
    ... Clark, Graeme Milbourne (1935 - ) ...
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.036)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.036)

  1. Annotated Trade Practices Act / by Russell V. Miller
    Australia
    [ Book, Periodical : 1900-2017 ]
    Languages: English;Undetermined;lis, [2 others]
    View online
    At 148 libraries
    Annotated Trade Practices Act / by Russell V. Miller
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.928)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.928)

  2. A century of great Australians. Jennifer Russell
    Russell, Jennifer, 1942-
    [ Book, Audio book : 2000-2008 ]
    At 75 libraries
    A century of great Australians. Jennifer Russell
    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.682)

    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.682)

  3. The oxford companion to Australian history / edited by Graeme Davison, John Hirst and Stuart MacIntyre; with the assistance of Helen Doyle and Kim Torney
    Davison, Graeme, 1940-
    [ Book, Periodical : 1998-2017 ]
    Languages: English;lis, [1 other]
    Possibly online
    At 181 libraries
    The oxford companion to Australian history / edited by Graeme Davison, John Hirst and Stuart MacIntyre; with the assistance of Helen Doyle and Kim Torney
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.466)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.466)

  4. Lifework : heroes of Australian health / James Murray
    Murray, James, 1931-
    [ Book : 1997 ]
    At 67 libraries
    Lifework : heroes of Australian health / James Murray
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.369)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.369)

  1. FUNERALS GRAEME PITT
    Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954) Tuesday 21 August 1945 p 4 Article
    ... FUNERALS GRAEME PITT The funeral of Graeme Hedley Pitt, which took place at Carr Villa, was ... . Pitt (cousin). Pallbearers were the Mayor (Ald. Clark), Messrs. P. C. creaw ford, J. L. Mayhead, Denham ... 306 words
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.663)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.663)

  2. Graeme French wins "£500"
    Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 - 1954) Wednesday 2 January 1952 p 7 Article
    ... . Kirkham 1. S. James 2. Others: E. Robinson. P. Ii 'Clarke, 1.51 1-10. Heat 1: I M. Sloane 1. J. IUuek 2 ... Graeme French wins "£500" Graeme French, former Tasmanian cyclist, who has been /» Mel lum rue for ... 356 words
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.626)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.626)

  3. GRAEME DORELL, GRANDIOSE MAY HAVE ELPHIN DUEL
    Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954) Friday 24 November 1950 p 10 Article
    ... GRAEME DORELL, GRANDIOSEJ MAY HAVE ELPHIN DUEL By Woorak IF BOTH leave the mark smartly, Graeme ... the last Elphin meeting Graeme Dorell and Western Walla won their respective races very attractively ... 1114 words
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.5)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.5)

  1. .PMG ETD South Australia and P.M.G - The Trans-Continental Telegraph (The Overland Telegraph)
    .PMG ETD South Australia and P.M.G - The Trans-Continental Telegraph  (The Overland Telegraph)
    Created by ColinMcDiarmid, 235 items.

    PMG ETD South Australia - PMG Postmaster-General - ETD Electric Telegraph Dept. Telecom

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.004)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.004)

  2. BABIDGE
    BABIDGE
    Created by mccallumalison8, 40 items.

    BABIDGE FAMILY OF HEATHCOTE, VICTORIAThe Babidge family (of Heathcote Vic) arrived in Australia in 1855. There were a number of children and hence the several Babidge families in the Heathco...

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.002)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.002)

  3. Brumby - Deaths
    Brumby - Deaths
    Created by Peter-M-Brumby, 95 items.

    This resource may only be vaguely related to your query: matching terms may only have been found in the full text contents of the resource (score: 0.001)

    This resource may only be vaguely related to your query: matching terms may only have been found in the full text contents of the resource (score: 0.001)

  1. The rise and fall of marvellous Melbourne / [by] Graeme Davison
    Davison, Graeme, 1940-
    [ Book, Audio book, Map : 1978-2017 ]
    Read online at Hathi Trust
    View online
    At 96 libraries
    The rise and fall of marvellous Melbourne / [by] Graeme Davison
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.251)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.251)

  2. Environmental concerns and international migration.(Special Issue: Ethics, Migration, and Global Stewardship)
    Hugo, Graeme
    International Migration Review
    [ Poster, chart, other, Map, Article : 1996 ]
    View online (conditions apply)
    This resource may only be vaguely related to your query: matching terms may only have been found in the full text contents of the resource (score: 0.017)

    This resource may only be vaguely related to your query: matching terms may only have been found in the full text contents of the resource (score: 0.017)

  3. The Oxford handbook of the archaeology and anthropology of hunter-gatherers / edited by Vicki Cummings, Peter Jordan, and Marek Zvelebil
    Cummings, Vicki
    [ Book, Map : 2014 ]
    At 7 libraries
    The Oxford handbook of the archaeology and anthropology of hunter-gatherers / edited by Vicki Cummings, Peter Jordan, and Marek Zvelebil
    This resource may only be vaguely related to your query: matching terms may only have been found in the full text contents of the resource (score: 0)

    This resource may only be vaguely related to your query: matching terms may only have been found in the full text contents of the resource (score: 0)

  1. Annotated Trade Practices Act / by Russell V. Miller
    Australia
    [ Book, Periodical : 1900-2017 ]
    Languages: English;Undetermined;lis, [2 others]
    View online
    At 148 libraries
    Annotated Trade Practices Act / by Russell V. Miller
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 1.226)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 1.226)

  2. Fish in farm dams / Steven Boyd
    New South Wales. Dept. of Primary Industries
    [ Periodical, Archived website : 2000-2017 ]
    View online
    At 6 libraries
    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 0.844)

    This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 0.844)

  3. The oxford companion to Australian history / edited by Graeme Davison, John Hirst and Stuart MacIntyre; with the assistance of Helen Doyle and Kim Torney
    Davison, Graeme, 1940-
    [ Book, Periodical : 1998-2017 ]
    Languages: English;lis, [1 other]
    Possibly online
    At 181 libraries
    The oxford companion to Australian history / edited by Graeme Davison, John Hirst and Stuart MacIntyre; with the assistance of Helen Doyle and Kim Torney
    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.482)

    This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.482)

  4. Aesop's fables / illustrations by Rodney McRae
    Aesop
    [ Book, Microform, Article, Audio book : 1477-2016 ]
    Languages: English;Latin;Greek, Ancient (to 1453);Chinese, [29 others]
    Read online at Open Library/Internet Archive
    View online
    At 158 libraries
    Aesop's fables / illustrations by Rodney McRae
    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.327)

    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.327)

  1. A century of great Australians. Jennifer Russell
    Russell, Jennifer, 1942-
    [ Book, Audio book : 2000-2008 ]
    At 75 libraries
    A century of great Australians. Jennifer Russell
    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.682)

    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.682)

  2. Aesop's fables / illustrations by Rodney McRae
    Aesop
    [ Book, Microform, Article, Audio book : 1477-2016 ]
    Languages: English;Latin;Greek, Ancient (to 1453);Chinese, [29 others]
    Read online at Open Library/Internet Archive
    View online
    At 158 libraries
    Aesop's fables / illustrations by Rodney McRae
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.281)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.281)

  3. The rise and fall of marvellous Melbourne / [by] Graeme Davison
    Davison, Graeme, 1940-
    [ Book, Audio book, Map : 1978-2017 ]
    Read online at Hathi Trust
    View online
    At 96 libraries
    The rise and fall of marvellous Melbourne / [by] Graeme Davison
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.251)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.251)

  4. Storm of time / Eleanor Dark
    Dark, Eleanor, 1901-1985
    [ Book, Audio book : 1946-2013 ]
    Languages: English;Undetermined, [1 other]
    At 100 libraries
    Storm of time / Eleanor Dark
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.22)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.22)

  1. Robert Boden papers
    Boden, Robert, 1935-2009
    [ Unpublished : 1953-2007 ]
    At ACT Public Library
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.205)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.205)

  2. Papers of Nigel Butterley
    Butterley, Nigel, 1935-
    [ Unpublished : 1953-2007 ]
    At National Library
    Papers of Nigel Butterley
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.164)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.164)

  3. Papers of John Mulvaney
    Mulvaney, D. J. (Derek John), 1925-2016
    [ Unpublished : 1935-1999 ]
    At National Library
    Papers of John Mulvaney
    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.12)

    This resource may be of limited relevance to your query (score: 0.12)

  1. FARMERS' RELIEF ACT, 1932-1935.
    Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001) Friday 14 February 1936 [Issue No.37] p 842

    Government Gazette Notices

    ... July, 29 Aug., 4 Oct., 11 January, 1934. 25 9 February, „ 1 May, „ 1 M 19 February, 1935. 29 March ... FARMERS' RELIEF ACT, 1932-1935. THE following Stay Orders, numbered 2235 and 2236, have been ... 3089 words
    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.049)

    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.049)

  2. REGISTER OF MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS FOR 1935.
    Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001) Tuesday 5 March 1935 [Issue No.50 (SUPPLEMENT)] p 981

    Government Gazette Notices

    ... . Apps, Ray Clifton, Sydney Hospital. M.B., B.S., Univ. Sydney, 1935. Archbold, Gerald, 98 Peel ... D.P.H., Univ. Camb., 1895. Armytage, Patteson Omeo, 22 Station-street, Pymble. M.B., Univ. Sydney, 1935. Arnold ... 49083 words
    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.042)

    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.042)

  3. REGISTER OF NURSES AS AT 31st DECEMBER, 1935.
    Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001) Tuesday 16 June 1936 [Issue No.101 (SUPPLEMENT)] p 2337

    Government Gazette Notices

    ... Department of Public Health, Sydney, 15th June, 1936. REGISTER OF NURSES AS AT 31st DECEMBER, 1935 ... , Bellingen. Alkin, Lily Clara M., 2 Glenferrie Flats, Toongarah-road, North Sydney. Allan, Ellen Jane ... 78145 words
    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.035)

    This resource may have relevance to your query (score: 0.035)